A three-dimensional, large deformation elastic-plastic finite element model is used to study the distribution of internal stresses and strains which occur during the forging process. Simulations are carried out on a rectangular ingot, using conventional dies which are flat and symmetrical top and bottom, to study the effects of die width and amount of reduction. A comparison is then carried out between the conventional dies and FML dies, which are also flat but of differing size on top and bottom. Also, a brief study is made of the effects of temperature gradients from ingot surface to core when forged with both types of dies.

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