The constitutive modeling of cyclic plasticity has made great progress during the past twenty years. One of the incompletely solved problems concerns ratchetting, that is the progressive strain accumulation, cycle-by-cycle, induced by the superposition of a cyclic secondary load to a constant primary load. The paper discusses the main experimental facts and identifies the main inadequacies of the classical cyclic constitutive equations when they are used to predict ratchetting effects.

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