Three type 304 stainless steel specimens of the same geometry were subjected to complex, cyclic axial-torsional histories characterized by varying degrees of non-proportionality of straining. All tests were at room-temperature. The data from cyclically stable hysteresis loops were reduced and the direction of the plastic strain rate vector, variation of plastic hardening modulus, and direction of translation of a rate and time-independent yield surface were studied. It is shown that the independent variables in a Mroz-type formulation map the experimental results with a higher degree of uniqueness than other popular formulations studied for both the hardening modulus and direction of yield surface translation. Also, the plastic strain rate is not, in general, in the direction of the deviatoric stress or stress rate.

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