To elucidate the plastic behavior of metals under out-of-phase strain cycles, a series of experiments was performed on square strain trajectories in a vector space of deviatoric strain by applying combined axial force and torque to thin-walled tubular specimens of type 316 stainless steel. It was confirmed that strain hardening under out-of-phase cycles is much more significant than that under simple cycles. Though the combined isotropic-kinematic hardening model based on the concept of a nonhardening strain region proposed by Ohno gave qualitatively better predictions than the kinematic hardening model by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, there was still a considerable discrepancy between the former theory and the experiment.

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