Capabilities for the analysis of combined viscous and plastic behavior have been added to an existing finite element computer program for two-dimensional elastic-plastic calculations. This program (PAPSTB) has been formulated for elastic-plastic stress and deformation analyses of two-dimensional and axisymmetric structures. It has the ability to model large strains and large deformations of elastic-perfectly plastic, multi-linear hardening, or power-hardening materials. The program is based on incremental plasticity theory with a von Mises yield criterion. Time dependent behavior has been introduced into the PAPSTB program by adding a viscous strain increment to the elastic and plastic strain increment to form the total strain increment. The viscous calculations presently employ a power-law relationship between the viscous strain rate and the effective stress. The finite element code can be easily modified to handle more complex viscous models. The Newmark method for time integration is used, i.e., an input parameter is included which enables the user to vary the time domain approximation between forward (explicit) and backward (implicit) difference. Automatic time stepping is used to provide for stability in the viscous calculations. It is controlled by an input parameter related to the ratio of the current viscous strain increment to the total strain. The viscoplastic capabilities of the PAPSTB program are verified using the axisymmetric problem of an internally pressurized, thick-walled cylinder. The transient viscoplastic case is analyzed to demonstrate that the elastic-perfectly plastic solution is obtained as a steady-state condition is approached. The influence of varying the time integration parameter for transient viscoplastic calculations is demonstrated. In addition, the effects of time step on solution accuracy are investigated by means of the automatic time stepping algorithm in the program. The approach is then applied to a simple forging problem of cylinder upsetting.

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