Tough-pitch copper was drawn and extruded in multi-pass operations to effective strains of 1.53 or area reductions of 80 percent. It appears that residual stresses and mean pressure did not influence the behavior of the deformed materials as interpreted from tension and compression tests. It is suggested that the behavior of tough-pitch copper after deformation is similar to that observed by metallurgists in endurance tests and strongly indicates simultaneous strengthening and softening, through the combined process of dislocation strengthening (by multiplication, pinning and interaction) and softening by recovery.

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