Four kinds of creep constitutive models, i.e., strain-hardening, modified strain-hardening, kinematic-hardening, and mixed-hardening theory, are evaluated on the basis of creep-test results on type 304 stainless steel at 650°C under repeated multiaxial loading. The predictions of the four models are compared with the experimental results. It is shown that substantial differences appear among these predictions under large rotations of the principal axes of the deviatoric stress tensor, and that none of them can describe with sufficient accuracy the transient increase of strain-rate and the noncollinearity between the deviatoric stress and creep strain-rate vectors which are observed just after the stress-rotations.

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