Resistance spot welding (RSW) of aluminum-aluminum (Al-Al) is known to be very challenging, with asymmetric growth of the weld nugget often observed. In this paper, a semi-coupled electrical-thermal-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) procedure was established to simulate the RSW of two layers of AA6022-T4 sheets using a specially designed Multi-Ring Domed (MRD) electrodes. Critical to the modeling procedure was the thermoelectric (including the Peltier, Thomson, and Seebeck effects) analyses to simulate the asymmetric nugget growth in the welding stage. Key input parameters such as the Seebeck coefficients and high-temperature flow stress curves were measured. Simulation results, experimentally validated, indicated that the newly developed procedure could successfully predict the asymmetric weld nugget growth. Simulation results also showed the Seebeck effect in the holding stage. The simulations represent the first quantitative investigation of the impact of the thermoelectric effects on resistance spot welding.