The effects of axial constraints on the bending of beams sometimes can be an important factor in the design of apparatus. This nonlinear problem is approached by (a) an exact differential equation method, (b) an approximate deformation pattern method, and (c) a finite element method. Numerical results are presented which show that neglecting the axial force gives deflections which are several times higher than the correct solution. The methods are shown to be in agreement and universal design curves are presented.

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