The initial portion of the paper discusses the more conventional method of obtaining a vehicle transfer function where phase and magnitude are determined by dividing the cross spectral density of the input/output by the power spectral density (PSD) of the input. The authors needed a more descriptive analysis (over PSD) and developed a new signal description called Amplitude Frequency Distribution (AFD); a discrete joint probability of amplitude and frequency with the advantage of retaining amplitude distribution as well as frequency distribution. A better understanding was obtained, and transfer matrix functions were developed using AFD.

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