In order to analyze causes of failures of heavy-loaded spur gears, the authors deal with their dynamic characteristics by considering a vibrating system composed of an effective mass of gear blanks and stiffness of meshing teeth with manufacturing errors under a given operating condition. Even in the case of gears with considerable errors the coincidence of the theoretical findings with experimental results is satisfactory. Under heavy-load conditions the plastic flow produced in the subsurface layers of gear teeth is found to affect the variation of the dynamic load considerably owing to a local change of the tooth profile. The interaction between the tooth deformation and the dynamic load is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The authors treat the conditions of initiation of the gear failures in the representative modes, e.g., pitting and scoring, in connection with the dynamic load.

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