The primary metal removal mechanisms in vertical spindle abrasive machining are chip removal by firmly bonded abrasive grains in the wheel matrix, and secondary removal by the reuse of loose abrasive between the wheel-work interface. As you increase the strength (go to harder grades) of segments, the secondary metal removal rate tends to remain constant. However, the metal removed by firmly bonded abrasive increases rapidly. Changing from an E to an F grade approximately doubles the primary metal removal rate. Segmental wheels sharpen themselves by two major mechanisms—primary and secondary wear. Primary wear is caused by the common mechanisms of attrition, grain fracture, and bond failure. The secondary mechanism is caused by loose abrasive and metal chips in the wheel-work interface.

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