Railroad axle designs have been developed from an application of theoretical principles of Reuleaux combined with extensive laboratory fatigue studies supplemented to some extent by road service tests. The designer is presented with data on the effects of the complex forces acting on axles operating in railroad service. Criteria for wheel seat and axle body stresses established from fatigue tests and modified by practical considerations are discussed. The paper gives elaborate reference material for use by future investigators of axle properties and designs.

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