A study is made of three methods of estimating die loads in impact forging: By approximate solution of the equations of equilibrium; by an energy method, assuming plane sections remain plane; and using the energy method in association with a kinematically admissible velocity field. Results are given for die pressures and die loads for axisymmetric and plane-strain forging of disks and slabs with smooth dies, perfectly rough dies, and for the case of Coulomb friction.

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