A 4 1/2-in. API full-hole, tool-joint pin is stress-analyzed photoelastically over a range of standoffs. A three-dimensional plastic model is loaded to different values of makeup torque. At each torque a range of cyclic bending loads and a range of cyclic tensile loads are simulated. The results show that makeup torques must be raised for extreme hand-tight, shoulder-gap standoffs if a given pin tension is to be maintained. Maximum static root stresses are shown to be nearly independent of standoff if a constant pin tension is maintained. Further analysis indicates that the fluctuating pin-root stresses are also nearly independent of standoff if complete relieving of the shoulder compression loads is prevented. These considerations indicate that standoff has a negligible effect on the fatigue life of a tool-joint pin if relieving of the joint shoulders under operating conditions is prevented.

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