By pulling the chip at various angles during metal cutting, it has been possible to greatly decrease the shear strains and thus to obtain a wide range of shear strains with a single tool. Using this technique, stress-strain curves for commercial purity aluminum have been obtained at −320 deg F (78 deg K) and 68 deg F (293 deg K). These results lie above those obtained from compression tests on the same material and the difference is ascribed largely to strain rate. Limits are imposed on the chip-pulling technique by an instability which appears when the direction of pulling makes too great an angle with the tool face and by fracture.

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