This paper is concerned primarily with the effects of external pressure on thin-wall torispherical, toriconical, and ellipsoidal pressure vessel heads including the determination of the collapse pressures. Two test vessels, one having torispherical and 120-deg toriconical heads and the other having ellipsoidal and 90-deg toriconical heads, were used in the study. Longitudinal and circumferential stresses per psi external pressure were plotted for the regions at which the vessel heads had been welded to the cylindrical portions of the vessels. Deflection values were plotted for the torispherical and ellipsoidal heads. Both the stress values and deflection values were determined from experimental data.

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