The orthogonal metal-cutting process has been studied. It was found that the Ernst and Merchant solution, through the application of the limit-load theorems, appears to be a limiting solution for all cutting conditions. A new angle relationship has been developed from energy considerations and it was found that the new parameters, effectiveness η and machinability factor ξ, permit a better understanding of the machining process. It was found further that machining forces and power can now be predicted when the effectiveness η, the constant dynamic shear strength τ of the work material, and the chip ratio r or the friction angle β are known.

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