In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) has gained prominence in rapid prototyping and production of structural components with complex geometries. Magnesium alloys, which have a strength-to-weight ratio that is superior compared with steel and aluminum alloys, have shown potential in lightweighting applications. However, commercial beam-based AM technologies have limited success with magnesium alloys due to vaporization and hot cracking. Therefore, as an alternative approach, we propose the use of a near net-shape solid-state additive manufacturing process, additive friction stir deposition (AFSD), to fabricate magnesium alloys in bulk. In this study, a parametric investigation was performed to quantify the effect of process parameters on AFSD build quality including volumetric defects and surface quality in magnesium alloy AZ31B. In order to understand the effect of the AFSD process on structural integrity in the magnesium alloy AZ31B, in-depth microstructure and mechanical property characterization was conducted on a bulk AFSD build fabricated with a set of acceptable process parameters. Results of the microstructure analysis of the as-deposited AFSD build revealed bulk microstructure similar to wrought magnesium alloy AZ31 plate. Additionally, similar hardness measurements were found in AFSD build compared with control wrought specimens. While tensile test results of the as-deposited AFSD build exhibited a 20% drop in yield strength (YS), nearly identical ultimate strength was observed compared with the wrought control. The experimental results of this study illustrate the potential of using the AFSD process to additively manufacture Mg alloys for load bearing structural components with achieving wrought-like microstructure and mechanical properties.