Intermittent cutting characteristics of ultrasonic-assisted turning (UAT), compared with conventional turning (CT), has shown a significant enhancement in the machinability of hard-to-cut materials. The enhancement in machinability is associated with machining forces and friction characteristics of the process. The present article covers an analytical approach to predict the output responses such as machining forces and friction characteristics in UAT and CT processes. Specific cutting energy (SCE) for a particular work-piece material was considered to predict the output responses. The predictions were made by considering the conventional machining theories. Experiments for the UAT and the CT of SS 304 were carried out to validate the predicted model. The results from the analytical model showed that the shear angle increases and the tool work-piece contact ratio (TWCR) decrease with an increase in amplitude and frequency of vibration. The results obtained from the analytical model were found to be in close agreement with the experimental ones, with an approximate error of 2–20%.