In aviation and navigation, complicated parts are milled with high-speed low-feed-per-tooth milling to decrease tool vibration for high quality. Because the nonlinearity of the cutting force coefficient (CFC) is more evident with the relatively smaller instantaneous uncut chip thickness, the stable critical cutting depth and its distribution against different tool postures are affected. Considering the nonlinearity, a nonlinear dynamic CFC model that reveals the effect of the dynamic instantaneous uncut chip thickness on the dynamic cutting force is derived based on the Taylor expansion. A five-axis bull-nose end milling dynamics model is established with the nonlinear dynamic CFC model. The stable critical cutting depth distribution with respect to tool posture is analyzed. The stability results predicted with the dynamic CFC model are compared with those from the static CFC model and the constant CFC model. The effects of tool posture and feed per tooth on stable critical cutting depth were also analyzed, and the proposed model was validated by cutting experiments. The maximal stable critical cutting depths that can be achieved under different tool postures by feed per tooth adjustment were calculated, and corresponding distribution diagrams are proposed for milling parameter optimization.