Abstract

Forging and extrusion tools are often subjected to a combination of cyclic thermo-mechanical, chemical, and tribological loads. Strategies for minimizing these loads are critical for preventing premature tool failure and increasing productivity. A die design architecture for extrusion that minimizes the residual contact pressure at the die-workpiece interface during the ejection stroke is proposed. The underlying principle of this die design is that during the extrusion stroke, a tapered die can move in the direction of the extrusion load, thus inducing negative radial elastic strain on the die. When the extrusion load is removed, the elastic strain energy stored in the die is released, thus repositioning the die to its initial state. With this design architecture, the workpiece can be ejected at no load. The process was validated using finite element (FE) warm forging/extrusion simulations for a constant velocity (CV) joint and pinion gear shaft. These simulations showed that in addition to reducing residual contact pressure, which enhances tribological conditions, the new die design can easily lower die stresses, thus increasing die fatigue life. The FE simulations for CV joint and pinion gear shaft demonstrated residual pressure in certain locations of the die ranging from 30% to 100% of the pressure induced during the extrusion stroke. The case studies simulated showed that a total energy saving of up to 15% can be achieved with the proposed die setup.

References

References
1.
Cser
,
L.
,
Geiger
,
M.
,
Lange
,
K.
, and
Hansel
,
M.
,
1993
, “
Tool Life and Tool Quality in Bulk Metal Forming, IMechE
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.
,
207
(
4
), pp.
223
237
. 10.1243/PIME_PROC_1993_207_085_02
2.
Altan
,
T.
,
Ngaile
,
G.
, and
Shen
,
G.
,
2004
,
Cold and Hot Forging, Fundamentals and Applications
,
ASM International
,
Materials Park, OH
,
311
316
.
3.
Behrens
,
B.-A.
,
Bouguecha
,
A.
,
Lüken
,
I.
,
Mielke
,
J.
, and
Bistron
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Tribology in Hot Forging
,”
Compr. Mater. Process.
,
5
, pp.
211
234
. 10.1016/B978-0-08-096532-1.00538-0
4.
Hawryluk
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Review of Selected Methods of Increasing the Life of Forging Tools in Hot Die Forging Processes
,”
Arch. Civil Mech. Eng.
,
16
(
4
), pp.
845
866
. 10.1016/j.acme.2016.06.001
5.
Podgornik
,
B.
,
Hogmark
,
S.
, and
Sandberg
,
O.
,
2006
, “
Proper Coating Selection for Improved Galling Performance of Forming Tool Steel
,”
Wear
,
261
(1), pp.
15
21
. 10.1016/j.wear.2005.09.005
6.
Dubar
,
M.
,
Dubar
,
L.
, and
Dubois
,
A.
,
2005
, “
Wear Analysis of Tools in Cold Forging: PVD Versus CVD TiN Coatings
,”
Wear
,
259
(
7–12
), pp.
1109
1116
. 10.1016/j.wear.2005.01.006
7.
Geiger
,
M.
,
Popp
,
U.
, and
Engel
,
U.
,
2002
, “
Excimer Laser Micro Texturing of Cold Forging Tool Surfaces—Influence on Tool Life
,”
CIRP Ann.
,
51
(
1
), pp.
231
234
. 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)61506-6
8.
Dobrzański
,
L. A.
,
Labisz
,
K.
, and
Klimpel
,
A.
,
2003
, “
Effect of Laser Alloying on Thermal Fatigue and Mechanical Properties of the 32CrMoV12-20 Steel
,”
J. Achiev. Mater. Manuf. Eng.
,
19
(
1
), pp.
83
90
.
9.
Bay
,
N.
, “
State of the Art in Cold Forging Lubrication
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
46
(
l1994
), pp.
19
40
.
10.
Ngaile
,
G.
,
Cochran
,
J.
, and
Stark
,
D.
,
2007
, “
Formulation of Polymer-Based Lubricant for Metal Forming
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., B: J. Eng. Manuf.
,
221
, pp.
559
568
. 10.1243/09544054JEM659
11.
Sagisaka
,
Y.
,
Nakamura
,
T.
,
Hayakawa
,
K.
, and
Ishibashi
,
I.
,
2013
, “
Evaluation of Environmentally Friendly Lubricant for Aluminum Cold Forging Using Friction Test Based on Spline Extrusion
,”
J. Manuf. Process.
,
15
(
1
), pp.
96
101
. 10.1016/j.jmapro.2012.09.006
12.
Gariety
,
M.
,
Ngaile
,
G.
, and
Altan
,
T.
,
2007
, “
Evaluation of New Cold Forging Lubricants Without Zinc Phosphate Pre-Coat
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
,
47
(
3–4
), pp.
673
681
. 10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2006.04.016
13.
Bay
,
N.
,
Azushima
,
A.
,
Groche
,
P.
,
Ishibashi
,
I.
,
Merklein
,
M.
,
Morishita
,
M.
,
Nakamura
,
T.
,
Schmid
,
S.
, and
Yoshida
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Environmentally Benign Tribo-Systems for Metal Forming
,”
CIRP Ann: Manuf. Technol.
,
59
(
2
), pp.
760
780
. 10.1016/j.cirp.2010.05.007
14.
Wan
,
S.
,
Kiet Tieu
,
A.
,
Xia
,
Y.
,
Zhu
,
H.
, and
Cui
,
S.
,
2016
, “
An Overview of Inorganic Polymer as Potential Lubricant Additive for High Temperature Tribology
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
102
, pp.
620
635
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2016.06.010
15.
Zhang
,
J.
,
Thompson
,
A.
, and
Doyle
,
E. D.
,
1991
, “
Tool Life Management Using PVD-TiN Coated Cold Forming Tools
,”
Plenary Meeting of ICFG
,
Bath, UK
.
16.
Jin
,
N.
,
Yang
,
Y.
,
Luo
,
X.
, and
Xia
,
Z.
,
2013
, “
Development of CVD Ti-Containing Films
,”
Prog. Mater. Sci.
,
58
(
8
), pp.
490
533
.
17.
Gronostajski
,
Z.
,
Kaszuba
,
M.
,
Polak
,
S.
,
Zwierzchowski
,
M.
,
Niechajowicz
,
A.
, and
Hawryluk
,
M.
,
2016
, “
The Failure Mechanisms of hot Forging Dies
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
657
, pp.
147
160
. 10.1016/j.msea.2016.01.030
18.
Leskovsek
,
V.
,
Podgornik
,
B.
, and
Jenko
,
M.
,
2009
, “
A PACVD Duplex Coating for Hot-Forging Applications
,”
Wear
,
266
(
3–4
), pp.
453
460
. 10.1016/j.wear.2008.04.016
19.
Hawryluk
,
M.
,
Gronostajski
,
Z.
,
Widomski
,
P.
,
Kaszuba
,
M.
, and
Smolik
,
J.
,
2018
, “
Influence of the Application of a PN+Cr/CrN Hybrid Layer on the Improvement of the Lifetime of Hot Forging Tools
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
258
, pp.
226
238
. 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2018.03.029
20.
Jia
,
Z.
, and
Ji
,
J.
,
2017
, “
Influence Analysis of Shot Peening on Hot Forging Die
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
90
(
5–8
), pp.
1779
1787
. 10.1007/s00170-016-9499-y
21.
Wagner
,
K.
,
Völkl
,
R.
, and
Engel
,
U.
,
2008
, “
Tool Life Enhancement in Cold Forging by Locally Optimized Surfaces
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
201
(
1–3
), pp.
2
8
. 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.11.152
22.
Groenbaek
,
J.
, and
Birker
,
T.
,
2000
, “
Innovation in Cold Forging Die Design
,”
J. Mater. Proc. Technol.
,
98
(
2
), pp.
155
161
. 10.1016/S0924-0136(99)00192-2
23.
Vazquez
,
V.
,
Hannan
,
D.
, and
Taylan
,
T.
,
2000
, “
Tool Life in Cold Forging-an Example of Design Improvement to Increase Service Life
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
98
(
1
), pp.
90
96
. 10.1016/S0924-0136(99)00309-X
24.
Knoerr
,
M.
,
Kurt Lange
,
K.
, and
Altan
,
T.
,
1994
, “
Fatigue Failure of Cold Forging Tooling: Causes and Possible Solutions Through Fatigue Analysis
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
46
(
1–2
), pp.
57
71
. 10.1016/0924-0136(94)90102-3
25.
Joun
,
M. S.
,
Chung
,
J. H.
, and
Shivpuri
,
R.
,
1998
, “
An Axisymmetric Forging Approach to Preform Design in Ring Rolling Using a Rigid–Viscoplastic Finite Element Method
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
,
38
(
10–11
), pp.
1183
1191
. 10.1016/S0890-6955(98)00014-5
26.
Srikanth
,
A.
, and
Nicholas Zabaras
,
N.
,
2000
, “
Shape Optimization and Preform Design in Metal Forming Processes
,”
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng.
,
190
(
13–14
), pp.
1859
1901
. 10.1016/S0045-7825(00)00213-9
27.
Oh
,
S. I.
,
Wu
,
W. T.
, and
Arimoto
,
K.
,
2001
, “
Recent Developments in Process Simulation for Bulk Forming Processes
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
111
(
1–3
), pp.
2
9
. 10.1016/S0924-0136(01)00508-8
28.
Gordon
,
W. A.
,
Van Tyne
,
C. J.
, and
Sriram
,
S.
,
2002
, “
Extrusion Through Dies—An Upper Bound Analysis
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
124
(
1
), pp.
92
97
. 10.1115/1.1419198
29.
Chang
,
D.
, and
Wang
,
J.
,
2006
, “
Optimized Upper Bound Analysis of Axisymmetric Extrusion Using Spherical Velocity Field
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
128
(
1
), pp.
4
10
. 10.1115/1.2112947
30.
Shivpuri
,
R.
,
Babu
,
S.
, and
Semiatin
,
S. L.
,
2005
,
ASM Handbook, Volume 14A, Metalworking: Bulk Forming
,
ASM International
,
Materials Park, OH
, pp.
62
83
.
31.
Virtanen
,
E.
,
Van Tyne
,
C. J.
,
Levy
,
B. S.
, and
Brada
,
G.
,
2013
, “
The Tempering Parameter for Evaluating Softening of Hot and Warm Forging die Steels
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
213
(
8
), pp.
1364
1369
. 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2013.03.003
32.
Lowrie
,
J.
, and
Ngaile
,
G.
,
2016
, “
New Punch Design for the Elimination of Punch Ejection Load Through Manipulation of the Elastic Strain Field in the Punch Nose
,”
J. Manuf. Process.
,
22
, pp.
49
59
. 10.1016/j.jmapro.2016.01.008
33.
Ku
,
T.-W.
,
Ho
,
K.-L.
, and
Kang
,
B.-S.
,
2013
, “
Multi-Stage Cold Forging and Experimental Investigation for the Outer Race of Constant Velocity Joints
,”
Mater. Des.
,
49
, pp.
368
385
. 10.1016/j.matdes.2013.01.030
34.
Kim
,
Y.
, and
Choi
,
C.
,
2009
, “
A Study on Life Estimation of Hot Forging Die
,”
Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.
,
10
(
3
), pp.
105
113
. 10.1007/s12541-009-0054-8
35.
Lee
,
T. M.
,
2002
, “
A Study on the Fatigue Behavior of STD 61 Die Steel at Various Temperature
,” MSc. thesis,
Kookmin University.
pp.
14
22
.
You do not currently have access to this content.