Abstract

Single-phase cold plate liquid cooling attracts more and more attention to high-performance computing (HPC), cloud computing, and general computing data centers for the thermal management of modern microprocessors and adjacent components due to liquid’s inherent advantage of higher specific heat compared to air. Deionized (DI) water is usually used as a coolant for liquid cooling in data centers. On the contrary, propylene glycol/water is recommended as a coolant for single-phase cold plate liquid cooling in this study for following reasons. The inhibited propylene glycol-based fluids of 25+% vol have the benefit of being biostatic and not requiring addition of biocides. They also offer freezing protection in the usage of data centers in cold climates. The cold plates made from copper is prone to oxide even under the room temperature, and the dissimilarity between brazing material and copper can also cause galvanic corrosion in the usage. In this paper, a study was carried out to investigate cold plate corrosion with inhibited propylene glycol/water using design of experiments (DOE) method. This study shows manufacturing process plays an important role on corrosion of cold plates made from copper and the corrosion risk can be mitigated by enabling new manufacturing processes, including friction stir welding (FSW) and nickel plating to the inside surface of the cold plate in the manufacturing process.

References

1.
Rupp
,
K.
,
2018
, “
42 Years of Microprocessor Trend Data
,”
Microprocessor Trend Data Repository
, https://www.karlrupp.net/2018/02/42-years-of-microprocessor-trend-data/
2.
Chu
,
R. C.
,
Simons
,
R. E.
,
Ellsworth
,
M. J.
,
Schmidt
,
R. R.
, and
Cozzolino
,
V.
,
2004
, “
Review of Cooling Technologies for Computer Products
,”
IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab.
,
4
(
4
), pp.
568
585
.
3.
Schulz-Harder
,
J.
,
Exel
,
K.
, and
Meyer
,
A.
,
2006
, “
Direct Liquid Cooling of Power Electronics Devices
,”
IEEE 4th International Conference on Integrated Power Systems
,
Naples, Italy
,
June 7–9
, pp.
1
6
.
4.
Light Reading
,
2020
, “
Ten Forecasted Trends of the Data Center Industry
,” https://www.lightreading.com/partner-perspectives-(sponsored-content)/ten-forecasted-trends-of-the-data-center-industry-/a/d-id/759092, Accessed February 1, 2021.
5.
Researchandmarkets
,
2020
, “
Data Center Liquid Cooling Market by Type of Solution—Global Forecast to 2024
,” https://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/6kbfcb//data_center/, Accessed February 1, 2021.
6.
Hu
,
G.
,
Yang
,
J.
, and
Zheng
,
X.
,
2017
, “
Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Cold Plate in Ethylene Glycol Coolant
,”
Corros. Prot.
,
38
(
11
), pp.
871
876
.
7.
Liu
,
Y.
, and
Cheng
,
Y. F.
,
2010
, “
Effects of Coolant Chemistry on Corrosion of 3003 Aluminum Alloy in Automotive Cooling System
,”
Mater. Corros.
,
61
(
7
), pp.
574
579
.
8.
Astrodyne TDI
,
2020
, “
Corrosion Resistance of Anodized Aluminum for Water-Cooled Electronic Assemblies
,” https://www.astrodynetdi.com/blog/corrosionresitance#:~:text=The%20results%20indicate%20anodized%20aluminum,corrosion%20rate%20at%203.0%20mpy
9.
Kartsonakis
,
I.
,
Koumoulos
,
E. P.
,
Karantonis
,
A.
, and
Charitidis
,
C. A.
,
2015
, “
Study of Corrosion of Copper in Industrial Cooling Systems
,”
Int. J. Mater. Struct. Integr.
,
6
(
5
), pp.
617
635
.
10.
Lu
,
B.
,
Lu
,
B.
,
Meng
,
W. J.
, and
Mei
,
F.
,
2013
, “
Experimental Investigation of Cu-Based, Double-Layered, Microchannel Heat Exchangers
,”
J. Micromech. Microeng.
,
23
(
3
), p.
035017
.
11.
Deng
,
Y. G.
, and
Liu
,
J.
,
2009
, “
Corrosion Development Between Liquid Gallium and Four Typical Metal Substrates Used in Chip Cooling Device
,”
Appl. Phys. A
,
95
(
3
), pp.
907
915
.
12.
Maddela
,
S.
, and
Carlson
,
B. E.
,
2019
, “
Corrosion Characterization of Resistance Spot-Welded Aluminum and Steel Couple
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
141
(
11)
, p.
111010
.
13.
Mohapatra
,
S. C.
,
2006
, “An Overview of Liquid Coolants for Electronics Cooling,”
Electronics Cooling
, https://www.electronics-cooling.com/2006/05/an-overview-of-liquid-coolants-for-electronics-cooling/
14.
Intel Corporation
,
2020
, “
Liquid Cooling Design Guide (Secondary Loop for Direct-to-Chip Liquid Cooling)
,”
Revision 2.0, 2020, Internal White Paper, 2020
.
15.
Pruett
,
K. M.
,
1995
,
Chemical Resistance Guide for Metals and Alloys: A Guide to Chemical Resistance of Metals and Alloys
,
Compass Publications
,
La Jolla, CA
.
16.
Connor
,
K.
,
Dispelling the Myths of Heat Transfer Fluids
,
The Dow Chemical Company
,
Midland, MI
.
17.
Monticelli
,
C.
,
Brunoro
,
G.
,
Trabanelli
,
F. G.
, and
Frignani
,
A.
,
1986
, “
Corrosion in Solar Heating Systems. I. Copper Behavior in Water/Glycol Solutions
,”
Mater. Corros.
,
37
(
9
), pp.
479
484
.
18.
Buffa
,
G.
,
Campanella
,
D.
,
Forcellese
,
A.
,
Fratini
,
L.
,
Simoncini
,
M.
, and
Barcellona
,
A.
,
2019
, “
Investigation of Interfacial Layer for Friction Stir Welded AA7075-T6 Aluminum to DP1180 Steel Joints
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
141
(
8
), p.
081002
.
19.
Perivilli
,
S.
,
Student
,
G.
,
Peddieson
,
J.
, and
Cui
,
J.
,
2009
, “
Friction Stir Welding Heat Transfer: Quasisteady Modeling and Its Validation
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
131
(
1
), p.
011007
.
20.
Chao
,
Y. J.
,
Qi
,
X.
, and
Tang
,
W.
,
2003
, “
Heat Transfer in Friction Stir Welding—Experimental and Numerical Studies
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
125
(
1
), pp.
138
145
.
You do not currently have access to this content.