In this paper, the printing of 3D functionally graded polymer/metal, polymer/ceramic composite components via an ultrasonic vibration-assisted laser-based multiple material powder bed fusion (PBF) is reported. Components consisted of various polymer composites with different compositions according to design was realized. High concentrations (up to 90%) of solid particle additives, including soda-lime glass, aluminum oxide, and copper powders, were mixed with the polymer and printed, which was difficult or impossible to realize using conventional injection molding or standard fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing. Effects of laser melting/sintering parameters and manufacturing strategy of each type of polymeric composite were investigated. A successful delivery of very difficult-to-feed fine powder mixtures such as PA11/Al2O3 with irregular powder geometry via a new configuration of ultrasonic feeding was demonstrated. Three examples of 3D functionally graded components (part of a shoe sole, a turbine blade, and components of a ball bearing) were printed to illustrate the potential applications of the method.