This paper presents a novel method to eliminate cosine error in precision concave and convex surface measurement by integrating a displacement probe in a precision spindle. Cosine error in surface profile measurement comes from an angular misalignment between the measurement axis and the axis of motion and negatively affects the measurement accuracy, especially in optical surface measurements. A corrective multiplier can solve this problem for spherical surface measurement, but cosine error cannot be eliminated in the case of complex optical surface measurement because current tools do not measure such surfaces along the direction normal to the measurement plane. Because the displacement probe is placed on the spindle axis, the spindle error motion will affect the shape precision and surface roughness measurement of optical components such as mirrors and lenses, and the displacement probe will measure a combination of the spindle error motion and the geometry of optical surfaces. Here, the one-dimensional concave, convex, and hollow measurement targets were used, and cosine error was fundamentally eliminated by aligning the probe on the spindle always normal to the measured surface, and compensation was made for the aerostatic bearing spindle rotational error obtained by the reversal method. The results show that this proposed measurement method cannot only eliminate cosine error but also scan the large area quickly and conveniently. In addition, measurement uncertainty and further consideration for future work were discussed.