With the invention of chirped pulse amplification for lasers in the mid-1980s, high power ultrafast lasers entered into the world as a disruptive tool, with potential impact on a broad range of application areas. Since then, ultrafast lasers have revolutionized laser–matter interaction and unleashed their potential applications in manufacturing processes. With unprecedented short pulse duration and high laser intensity, focused optical energy can be delivered to precisely define material locations on a time scale much faster than thermal diffusion to the surrounding area. This unique characteristic has fundamentally changed the way laser interacts with matter and enabled numerous manufacturing innovations over the past few decades. In this paper, an overview of ultrafast laser technology with an emphasis on femtosecond laser is provided first, including its development, type, working principle, and characteristics. Then, ultrafast laser applications in manufacturing processes are reviewed, with a focus on micro/nanomachining, surface structuring, thin film scribing, machining in bulk of materials, additive manufacturing, bio manufacturing, super high resolution machining, and numerical simulation. Both fundamental studies and process development are covered in this review. Insights gained on ultrafast laser interaction with matter through both theoretical and numerical researches are summarized. Manufacturing process innovations targeting various application areas are described. Industrial applications of ultrafast laser-based manufacturing processes are illustrated. Finally, future research directions in ultrafast laser-based manufacturing processes are discussed.