A crossbow is one of the shape defects caused by width differences between the top and bottom plate surfaces. To improve the plate flatness, leveling must be performed to flatten the crossbowed plate prior to the second manufacturing process. Leveling is a process for minimizing shape defects and enhancing the internal stress uniformity in shape-critical applications. As roller levelers mainly correct shape defects across the plate length, the entire plate width must be worked to correct the crossbow. Owing to the high sensitivity of roll positions in the leveler on the plate geometry, a unique leveling machine setup should be determined for flattening the crossbowed plate. As the problem is complicated by the high inherent nonlinearity and sensitivity, the finite element method has been used to simulate numerically the effect of work roll configurations on leveling efficiency. In order to verify the accuracy of numerical simulations, actual leveling experiments were performed using crossbowed plates. Through the analysis, the leveling strategy for increasing the leveling efficiency of crossbowed plates is validated with a high degree of reliability.

References

References
1.
Yali
,
Y.
, and
Herong
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Three Roller Curvature Scotch Straightening Mechanism Study and System Design
,”
Energy Proc.
,
16
(
A
), pp.
38
44
.
2.
Moon
,
Y. H.
,
Kim
,
D. W.
, and
Van Tyne
,
C. J.
,
2008
, “
Analytical Model for Prediction of Sidewall Curl During Stretch-Bend Sheet Metal Forming
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
50
, pp.
666
675
.
3.
Hemmerich
,
E.
,
Rolfe
,
B.
,
Hodgson
,
P. D.
, and
Weiss
,
M.
,
2011
, “
The Effect of Pre-Strain on the Material Behaviour and the Bauschinger Effect in the Bending of Hot Rolled and Aged Steel
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
528
, pp.
3302
3309
.
4.
Liu
,
Z.
,
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Yan
,
X.
,
2012
, “
A New Model for the Plate Leveling Process Based on Curvature Integration Method
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
54
, pp.
213
224
.
5.
Yi
,
H. K.
,
Kim
,
D. W.
,
Van Tyne
,
C. J.
, and
Moon
,
Y. H.
,
2008
, “
Analytical Prediction of Springback Based on Residual Differential Strain During Sheet Metal Bending
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. C
,
222
, pp.
117
129
.
6.
Zuo
,
Q.
,
He
,
K.
,
Dang
,
X.
,
Feng
,
W.
, and
Du
,
R.
,
2017
, “
A Novel Incremental Sheet Bending Process of Complex Curved Steel Plate
,”
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
139
, p.
111005
.
7.
Chen
,
W.-h.
,
Liu
,
J.
,
Cui
,
Z.-s.
,
Wang
,
Y.-j.
, and
Wang
,
Y.-r.
,
2015
, “
A 2.5-Dimensional Analytical Model of Cold Leveling for Plates With Transverse Wave Defects
,”
J. Iron Steel Res. Int.
,
22
(
8
), pp.
664
671
.
8.
Laugwitz
,
M.
,
Seuren
,
S.
,
Jochum
,
M.
,
Hojda
,
S.
,
Lohmar
,
J.
, and
Hirt
,
G.
,
2017
, “
Development of Levelling Strategies for Heavy Plates Via Controlled FE Models
,”
Proc. Eng.
,
207
, pp.
1349
1354
.
9.
Achillopoulou
,
D. V.
, and
Pau
,
A.
,
2017
, “
Characterization of Defects in Plates Using Shear and Lamb Waves
,”
Proc. Eng.
,
199
, pp.
2001
2007
.
10.
Cho
,
H.-H.
,
Cho
,
Y.-G.
,
Kim
,
D.-W.
,
Kim
,
S.-J.
,
Lee
,
W.-B.
, and
Han
,
H. N.
,
2014
, “
Finite Element Investigation for Edge Wave Prediction in Hot Rolled Steel During Run Out Table Cooling
,”
ISIJ Int.
,
54
(
7
), pp.
1646
1652
.
11.
Madej
,
L.
,
Muszka
,
K.
,
Perzyński
,
K.
,
Majta
,
J.
, and
Pietrzyk
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Computer Aided Development of the Levelling Technology for Flat Products
,”
CIRP Ann. – Manuf. Technol.
,
60
, pp.
291
294
.
12.
Kim
,
P. H.
,
Chun
,
M. S.
,
Yi
,
J. J.
, and
Moon
,
Y. H.
,
2002
, “
Pass Schedule Algorithms for Hot Open Die Forging
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
130–131
, pp.
516
523
.
13.
Behrens
,
B.-A.
,
El Nadi
,
T.
, and
Krimm
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Development of an Analytical 3D-Simulation Model of the Levelling Process
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
211
, pp.
1060
1068
.
14.
Li
,
S.
,
Yin
,
Y.
,
Xu
,
J.
,
Hou
,
J.
, and
Yoon
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Numerical Simulation of Continuous Tension Leveling Process of Thin Strip Steel and Its Application
,”
J. Iron Steel Res. Int.
,
14
, pp.
8
13
.
15.
Park
,
K. S.
,
Van Tyne
,
C. J.
, and
Moon
,
Y. H.
,
2007
, “
Process Analysis of Multistage Forging by Using Finite Element Method
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
187–188
, pp.
586
590
.
16.
Zhao
,
Y.
,
Wan
,
X.
,
Gao
,
L.
,
Kong
,
Q.
, and
Yu
,
Z.
,
2018
, “
Theoretical Prediction of Sheet Metal Wrinkling Based on the Potential Function Analysis
,”
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
140
,
101012
.
17.
Schleinzer
,
G.
, and
Fischer
,
F. D.
,
2001
, “
Residual Stress Formation During the Roller Straightening of Railway Rails
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
43
, pp.
2281
2295
.
18.
Park
,
K.
, and
Hwang
,
S.
,
2002
, “
Development of a Finite Element Analysis Program for Roller Leveling and Application for Removing Blanking Bow Defects of Thin Steel Sheet
,”
ISIJ Int.
,
42
, pp.
990
999
.
19.
Fischer
,
F. D.
,
Rammerstorfer
,
F. G.
,
Friedl
,
N.
, and
Wieser
,
W.
,
2000
, “
Buckling Phenomena Related to Rolling and Levelling of Sheet Metal
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
42
, pp.
1887
1910
.
20.
Chen
,
J.
,
Qian
,
J.
, and
Li
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Influence of Hot Leveling and Cooling Process on Residual Stresses of Steel Plates
,”
Adv. Mater. Res.
,
168–170
, pp.
1130
1135
.
21.
Seo
,
J. H.
,
Van Tyne
,
C. J.
, and
Moon
,
Y. H.
,
2016
, “
Effect of Roll Configuration on the Leveling Effectiveness of Tail-Up Bent Plate Using Finite Element Analysis
,”
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
138
, p.
071004
.
22.
Morris
,
J. W.
,
Hardy
,
S. J.
, and
Thomas
,
J. T.
,
2002
, “
Some Fundamental Considerations for the Control of Residual Flatness in Tension Leveling
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
120
, pp.
385
396
.
23.
Bergman
,
G. C.
, and
Enneking
,
A. D.
,
2005
, “
Displacement-Type Shape Sensor for Multi-Roll Leveler
,” U.S. Patent No. 6,857,301, Feb. 22.
24.
Lloyd
,
T. R.
,
1947
, “
Roller Leveler Machine
,” U.S. Patent No. 2,429,142, Oct. 14.
25.
Andres
,
G.
,
2015
, “
Shape Measurement System for Roller Levelers
,” Master of Science Thesis,
Youngstown State University
,
OH
.
You do not currently have access to this content.