Surface roughness is the key index point of wire saw processing silicon carbide (SiC). Many factors influence wafer surface quality, which is determined by the motion of the wire relative to the part. The vibration characteristic of wire saw and the process parameters are concerned factors in this paper, which presents a wire vibration model to study the wire saw vibration law. Experimental studies of a stationary wire are conducted to calibrate the damping coefficient and experimental studies of a moving wire are used to validate the developed model. Simulation, theoretical, and experimental data for wire vibrations during a variety of machining processes are found to compare very well, and the effects of various wire saw process parameters are investigated to analyze the influences of process parameters on wire vibration. It was shown that increasing the wire tension and feed rate, or decreeing the wire length, decreases the wire's first dominant frequency, and that changes in the wire velocity had a negligible effect. Finally, the measurement of the surface morphology and wire saw vibrations for different processing parameters was conducted, and it was seen that increases in the wire velocity and wire tension increases part surface quality and decreases processing time, while an increase in the feed rate decreases both part surface quality and processing time. The results show a clear correlation between the amplitude of the wire vibration outside of the processing zone and the part surface quality.