X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is a promising nondestructive evaluation technique for additive manufacturing (AM) parts with complex shapes. Industrial XCT scanning is a relatively new development, and XCT has several acquisition parameters that a user can change for a scan whose effects are not fully understood. An artifact incorporating simulated defects of different sizes was produced using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) AM. The influence of six XCT acquisition parameters was investigated experimentally based on a fractional factorial designed experiment. Twenty experimental runs were performed. The noise level of the XCT images was affected by the acquisition parameters, and the importance of the acquisition parameters was ranked. The measurement results were further analyzed to understand the probability of detection (POD) of the simulated defects. The POD determination process is detailed, including estimation of the POD confidence limit curve using a bootstrap method. The results are interpreted in the context of the AM process and XCT acquisition parameters.