The continuing evolution of ultraprecision machining places an increasing need to perform surface measurement in the manufacturing environment. Development of on-machine surface measurement (OMSM) tools for ultraprecision machining processes will enable the reduction of measurement cycle time as well as the potential improvement of machining accuracy. In the present study, an in-house designed interferometer probe is integrated onto an ultraprecision diamond turning machine. System configuration, calibration scheme and various scanning strategies are first presented. The benefit of OMSM preserves the consistency between the machining and measurement coordinate system. Two applications of OMSM for ultraprecision turning process are further investigated. To further improve the surface accuracy, corrective machining is carried out based on the on-machine measured data. The profile accuracy of a cosine curve sample was improved after corrective machining with OMSM. Moreover, process investigation with OMSM was employed to model the effect of process parameters on the form error in ultraprecision cylindrical turning process. OMSM enables the consistent measurement of part coordinates for each experimental run, which is critical for acquiring a deterministic response for empirical modeling. A reduced quadratic model was built by means of response surface methodology and verified by the test for significance of the regression model. The confirmation tests show that the model predicted value conformed to the experimental value with a difference less than 4%.

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