Recent advances in fused filament fabrication (FFF), such as five-axis printing, patching existing parts, and certain hybrid manufacturing processes, involve printing atop a previously manufactured polymer substrate. The success of these technologies depends upon the bond strength between the substrate and the newly added geometry. ANOVA and response surface methods were used to determine the effect of three process parameters on bond tensile strength: surface roughness, layer thickness, and raster angle. Experimental results indicate that the process–property relationships are not identical to those found in single, continuous FFF operations, and that the physical bonding mechanisms may also be different. Bond strength was found to be highly sensitive to surface roughness and layer thickness, and distinct optimal parameter settings exist. These results represent a first step toward understanding bond strength in such circumstances, allowing manufacturers to intelligently select process parameters for the production of both the substrate and the secondary geometry.

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