The simulation and experimental methods are used to determine the parameters of a tailored tempering process for a lab-scale B-pillar that is made from CSC-15B22 high-strength steel. The finite element software, DEFORM-3D, is used to simulate the tailored tempering process. A segmented hot stamping tool is developed for testing. Results demonstrate that the cooling and heating systems are successful. On the cooled side of the tooling, the cooling rate for the sheet is more than 30 °C/s. The material structure of the sheets is entirely a martensite structure, which results in an ultra-high strength material. The average hardness is measured as HV423, which translates to a tensile strength of 1350 MPa. On the heated side of the tooling, the cooling rate for the sheet is less than the critical cooling rate, the microstructure of the material is ferrite and pearlite, and the average hardness is measured at HV205, which translates to a tensile strength of approximately 660 MPa. The study demonstrates that a tailored tempering process allows production using integrated tooling and produces sheets that have different mechanical properties.

References

References
1.
Liu
,
Y.
,
Liu
,
Y.
, and
Chen
,
J.
,
2015
, “
The Impact of the Chinese Automotive Industry: Scenarios Based on the National Environmental Goals
,”
J. Cleaner Prod.
,
96
, pp.
102
109
.
2.
Kleiner
,
M.
,
Geiger
,
M.
, and
Klaus
,
A.
,
2003
, “
Manufacturing of Lightweight Components by Metal Forming
,”
CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol.
,
52
(
2
), pp.
521
542
.
3.
Alonso
,
E.
,
Lee
,
T. M.
,
Bjelkengren
,
C.
,
Roth
,
R.
, and
Kirchain
,
R. E.
,
2012
, “
Evaluating the Potential for Secondary Mass Savings in Vehicle Lightweighting
,”
Environ. Sci. Technol.
,
46
(
5
), pp.
2893
2901
.
4.
Neugebauer
,
R.
,
Altan
,
T.
,
Geiger
,
M.
,
Kleiner
,
M.
, and
Sterzing
,
A.
,
2006
, “
Sheet Metal Forming at Elevated Temperatures
,”
CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol.
,
55
(
2
), pp.
793
816
.
5.
Mori
,
K.
, and
Okuda
,
Y.
,
2010
, “
Tailor Die Quenching in Hot Stamping for Producing Ultra-High Strength Steel Formed Parts Having Strength Distribution
,”
CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol.
,
59
(
1
), pp.
291
294
.
6.
Karbasian
,
H.
, and
Tekkaya
,
A. E.
,
2010
, “
A Review on Hot Stamping
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
210
(
15
), pp.
2103
2118
.
7.
Pan
,
F.
,
Zhu
,
P.
, and
Zhang
,
Y.
,
2010
, “
Metamodel-Based Lightweight Design of B-Pillar With TWB Structure Via Support Vector Regression
,”
Comput. Struct.
,
88
(
1
), pp.
36
44
.
8.
Mori
,
K.
,
Maeno
,
T.
, and
Mongkolkaji
,
K.
,
2013
, “
Tailored Die Quenching of Steel Parts Having Strength Distribution Using Bypass Resistance Heating in Hot Stamping
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
213
(
3
), pp.
508
514
.
9.
George
,
R.
,
Bardelcik
,
A.
, and
Worswick
,
M. J.
,
2012
, “
Hot Forming of Boron Steels Using Heated and Cooled Tooling for Tailored Properties
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
212
(
11
), pp.
2386
2399
.
10.
Lenze
,
F.-J.
,
Banik
,
J.
, and
Sikora
,
S.
,
2008
, “
Application of Hot Formed Parts for Body in White
,”
International Deep Drawing Research Group Conference (IDDRG)
,
Olofström, Sweden
, June 16–18.
11.
Banik
,
J.
,
Lenze
,
F. J.
,
Sikora
,
S.
, and
Laurenz
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Tailored Properties—A Pivotal Question for Hot Forming
,”
Third International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel
,
Kassel, Germany
, June 13–17.
12.
China Steel Corporation,
2014
, “
Product Manual: Hot Rolled Steel
,”
China Steel Corporation
,
Kaohsiung, Taiwan
.
13.
UL
,
2016
, “CSC Hot-Rolled Steel HC 15B22 Datasheet,” UL LLC, Northbrook, IL, accessed Nov. 11, 2017, https://metals.ulprospector.com/datasheet/e232676/csc-hot-rolled-steel-hc-15b22
14.
Ethirajan
,
R.
,
2012
,
Elements of Heat Transfer
,
CRC Press
,
Boca Raton, FL
.
15.
Komvopoulos
,
K.
,
2016
,
Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials
, 2nd ed.,
Cognella Academic Publishing
,
San Diego, CA
.
You do not currently have access to this content.