To understand the different aspects of the laser cladding (LC) process, process models can be of aid. Presently, the correct parameter settings for different manufacturing processes, such as machining and casting, are based on simulation tools that can evaluate the influence of the process parameters for different conditions. However, there are no comprehensive, focused simulation process planning tools available for the LC process. In the past, most of the research has focused on the experimentally based optimization strategies for a process configuration, typically for a single track bead in steady-state conditions. However, an understanding of realistic transient conditions needs to be explored for effective process planning simulation tools and build strategies to be developed. A set of cladding experiments have been performed for single and multiple bead scenarios, and the effects of the transient conditions on the bead geometry for these scenarios have been investigated. It is found that the lead-in and lead-out conditions differ, corner geometry influences the bead height, and when changing the input power levels, the geometry values oscillate differently than the input pulses. Changes in the bead geometry are inherent when depositing material; consequently, real-time adjustments for the process setting are essential. The dynamic, time varying heating and solidification, for multiple layer scenarios, leads to challenging process planning and real-time control strategies.

References

References
1.
Vilar
,
R.
,
1999
, “
Laser Cladding
,”
J. Laser Appl.
,
11
(
2
), pp.
64
69
.
2.
Kumar
,
A.
,
Paul
,
C. P.
,
Pathak
,
A. K.
,
Bhargava
,
P.
, and
Kukreja
,
L. M.
,
2012
, “
A Finer Modeling Approach for Numerically Predicting Single Track Geometry in Two Dimensions During Laser Rapid Manufacturing
,”
Opt. Laser Technol.
,
44
(
3
), pp.
555
565
.
3.
William
,
H.
,
Melissa
,
W.
, and
Ensz
,
M.
,
1999
, “
Investigating Solidification With the Laser-Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) Process
,”
J. Manuf.
,
51
(
7
).
4.
DMG Mori,
2014
, “
All in 1: Laser Deposition Welding and Milling-Additive Manufacturing in Milling Quality
,” DMG Mori, Coventry, UK, accessed Oct. 15, 2015, http://uk.dmgmori.com/products/lasertec/lasertec-additivemanufacturing/lasertec-65-3d
5.
Mazak,
2014
, “
INTEGREX i-400AM
,” Mazak, Florence, Italy, accessed Oct. 15, 2015, https://www.mazakusa.com/machines/integrex-i-400am
6.
Hedrick
,
R. W.
,
Urbanic
,
R. J.
, and
Burford
,
C.
,
2015
, “
Development Considerations for an Additive Manufacturing CAM System
,”
15th IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing
(
INCOM 2015
), Ottawa, Canada, May 11–13, Vol.
48
, pp.
2327
2332
.
7.
Urbanic
,
R. J.
,
Saqib
,
S.
, and
Aggarwal
,
K.
,
2016
, “
Using Predictive Modeling and Classification Methods for Single and Overlapping Bead Laser Cladding to Understand Bead Geometry to Process Parameter Relationships
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
138
(
5
), p. 051012.
8.
Rao
,
P. K.
,
Liu
,
J.
,
Roberson
,
D.
,
Zhenyu
,
K.
, and
Williams
,
C.
,
2015
, “
Online Real-Time Quality Monitoring in Additive Manufacturing Processes Using Heterogenous Sensors
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
137
(
6
), p. 061007.
9.
Zhang
,
P.
,
Jakub
,
T.
,
Yu
,
Y.
,
Emre
,
B.
,
Mesut
,
K.
,
Markus
,
C.
, and
Albert
,
C.
,
2014
, “
Efficient Design-Optimization of Variable-Density Hexagonal Cellular Structure by Additive Manufacturing: Theory and Validation
,”
ASME J. Manuf, Sci. Eng.
,
137
(
2
), p. 021004.
10.
Paul
,
S.
,
Gupta
,
I.
, and
Singh
,
R. K.
,
2015
, “
Characterization and Modeling of Microscale Preplaced Powder Cladding Via Fiber Laser
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
137
(
3
), p. 031019.
11.
Michal
,
K.
,
Szymon
,
B.
,
Yijun
,
L.
,
Andrew
,
T.
,
Mark
,
R.
, and
Malcolm
,
G.
,
2016
, “
3D Analysis of Thermal and Stress Evolution During Laser Cladding of Bioactive Glass Coatings
,”
J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
,
59
, pp.
404
417
.
12.
Li
,
Y.
,
Huang
,
X.
,
Peng
,
H.
, and
Azer
,
M.
,
2005
, “
Laser Net Shape Manufacturing of Metallic Materials With CO2 and Fiber Laser
,”
24th International Congress on Application of Lasers and Electro-Optics
(
ICALEO
), Miami, FL, Oct. 31–Nov. 3, pp.
320
325
.
13.
Ermurat
,
M.
,
Arslan
,
A.
,
Erzincanli
,
F.
, and
Uzman
,
I.
,
2013
, “
Process Parameters Investigation of a Laser-Generated Single Clad for Minimum Size Using Design of Experiments
,”
Rapid Prototype J.
,
19
(
6
), pp.
452
462
.
14.
Dasgupta
,
E. B.
, and
Mukherjee
,
S.
,
2013
, “
Optimization of Weld Bead Parameters of Nickel Based Overlay Deposited by Plasma Transferred Arc Surfacing
,”
Int. J. Mod. Eng. Res.
,
3
(
3
), pp.
1330
1335
.
15.
Saqib
,
S.
,
Urbanic
,
J.
, and
Aggarwal
,
K.
,
2014
, “
Analysis of Laser Cladding Bead Morphology for Developing Additive Manufacturing Travel Paths
,”
47th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems
, Windsor, ON, Canada, Apr. 28–30, Vol.
17
, pp.
824
829
.
16.
Han
,
L.
,
Liou
,
F.
, and
Phatak
,
K. M.
,
2004
, “
Modeling of Laser Cladding With Powder Injection
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. B
,
35
(6), pp.
1139
1150
.
17.
Kim
,
I. S.
,
Son
,
J. S.
,
Park
,
C. E.
,
Kim
,
I. J.
, and
Kim
,
H.
,
2005
, “
An Investigation Into an Intelligent System for Predicting Bead Geometry in GMA Welding Process
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
159
(
1
), pp.
113
118
.
18.
Nagesh
,
S. D.
, and
Datta
,
G. L.
,
2002
, “
Prediction of Weld Bead Geometry and Penetration in Shielded Metal-Arc Welding Using Artificial Neural Networks
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
123
(
2
), pp.
303
312
.
19.
Toyserkani
,
E.
,
Khajepour
,
A.
, and
Corbin
,
S.
,
2004
, “
3-D Finite Element Modeling of Laser Cladding by Powder Injection: Effects of Laser Pulse Shaping on the Process
,”
Opt. Lasers Eng.
,
41
(
6
), pp.
849
867
.
20.
Qi
,
H.
,
Singh
,
P.
, and
Azer
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Adaptive Toolpath Deposition Method for Laser Net Shape Manufacturing and Repair of Turbine Compressor Airfoils
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
48
(1), pp.
121
131
.
21.
Ocelik
,
V.
,
Hemmati
,
M. E.
, and
De Hossan
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Elimination of Start/Stop Defects in Laser Cladding
,”
Surf. Coat. Technol.
,
206
(8–9), pp.
2403
2409
.
22.
Toyserkani
,
E.
,
Khajepour
,
A.
, and
Corbin
,
S.
,
2004
,
Laser Cladding
,
CRC Press
,
Boca Raton, FL
, Chap. 1.
You do not currently have access to this content.