Maintenance and its cost continue, over the years, drawing the attention of production management, since the unplanned failures decrease the reliability of the system and the return of investments. Maintenance services of manufactured products are among the most common services in the industry; they account for more than half of the total costs and influence the environmental impact of the product. In order for manufacturers to increase their productivity, by performing accurate and quick maintenance, advanced monitoring systems should be considered in order to easily detect machine tool failures before they occur. Toward that end, a cloud-based platform for condition-based preventive maintenance, supported by a shop-floor monitoring service and an augmented reality (AR) application, is proposed as a product-service system (CARM2-PSS). The proposed AR maintenance service consists of algorithms of automated generation of assembly sequences, part movement scripts, and improved interface that aim to maximize existing knowledge usage while creating vivid AR service instructions. Moreover, the proposed monitoring system is supported by a wireless sensor network (WSN), and is deployed on a Cloud environment together with the AR tool. The monitoring system monitors the status of the machine tools, calculates their remaining operating time between failures (ROTBF), and identifies the available windows of the machine tools in order to perform the AR remote maintenance. In order to validate the proposed methodology and calculate its impact, it is applied in a real-life case study of a white-goods industry.

References

References
1.
Chryssolouris
,
G.
,
2013
,
Manufacturing Systems: Theory and Practice
,
Springer Science & Business Media
,
New York
.
2.
Efthymiou
,
K.
,
Papakostas
,
N.
,
Mourtzis
,
D.
, and
Chryssolouris
,
G.
,
2012
, “
On a Predictive Maintenance Platform for Production Systems
,”
Proc. CIRP
,
3
, pp.
221
226
.
3.
Mori
,
M.
,
Fujishima
,
M.
,
Komatsu
,
M.
,
Zhao
,
B.
, and
Liu
,
Y.
,
2008
, “
Development of Remote Monitoring and Maintenance System for Machine Tools
,”
CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol.
,
57
(
1
), pp.
433
436
.
4.
Nee
,
A. Y. C.
,
Ong
,
S. K.
,
Chryssolouris
,
G.
, and
Mourtzis
,
D.
,
2012
, “
Augmented Reality Applications in Design and Manufacturing
,”
CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol.
,
61
(
2
), pp.
657
679
.
5.
Mourtzis
,
D.
, and
Doukas
,
M.
,
2014
, “
The Evolution of Manufacturing Systems: From Craftsmanship to the Era of Customisation
,”
Handbook of Research on Design and Management of Lean Production Systems
,
IGI Global
,
Hershey, PA
.
6.
Schmidt
,
B.
,
Galar
,
D.
, and
Wang
,
L.
,
2016
, “
Big Data in Maintenance Decision Support Systems: Aggregation of Disparate Data Types
,”
Euro Maintenance Conference Proceedings
, Athens, Greece, May 30–June 1, pp.
503
512
.
7.
Xu
,
X.
,
2012
, “
From Cloud Computing to Cloud Manufacturing
,”
Rob. Comput.-Integr. Manuf.
,
28
(
1
), pp.
75
86
.
8.
Adamson
,
G.
,
Wang
,
L.
, and
Holm
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Cloud Manufacturing–A Critical Review of Recent Development and Future Trends
,”
Int. J. Comput. Integr. Manuf.
, pp.
1
34
.
9.
Mourtzis
,
D.
, and
Vlachou
,
E.
,
2016
, “
Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems and Quality of Services
,”
TQM J.
,
28
(
5
), pp.
704
733
.
10.
Takata
,
S.
,
Kirnura
,
F.
,
Van Houten
,
F. J. A. M.
,
Westkamper
,
E.
,
Shpitalni
,
M.
,
Ceglarek
,
D.
, and
Lee
,
J.
,
2004
, “
Maintenance: Changing Role in Life Cycle Management
,”
CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol.
,
53
(
2
), pp.
643
655
.
11.
Dhilon
,
B. S.
,
2006
,
Maintenability, Maintenance, and Reliability for Engineers
,
Taylor and Francis
,
New York
.
12.
Venkataraman
,
V.
,
2007
,
Maintenance Engineering and Management
,
PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
,
New Delhi, India
.
13.
Sutherland
,
I. E.
,
1968
, “
A Head-Mounted Three Dimensional Display
,”
Fall Joint Computer Conference—Part: I
, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 9–11, pp.
757
764
.
14.
Feiner
,
S.
,
Macintyre
,
B.
, and
Seligmann
,
D.
,
1993
, “
Knowledge-Based Augmented Reality
,”
Commun. ACM
,
36
(
7
), pp.
53
62
.
15.
Schwald
,
B.
, and
De Laval
,
B.
,
2003
, “
An Augmented Reality System for Training and Assistance to Maintenance in the Industrial Context
,”
J. WSCG
,
11
(
1–3
), pp.
425
432
.
16.
Henderson
,
S. J.
, and
Feiner
,
S.
,
2007
,
Augmented Reality for Maintenance and Repair (Armar)
,
Department of Computer Science, Columbia University
,
New York
.
17.
Didier
,
J.-Y.
,
Roussel
,
D.
,
Mallem
,
M.
,
Otmane
,
S.
,
Naudet
,
S.
,
Pham
,
Q. C.
,
Bourgeois
,
S.
,
Mégard
,
C.
,
Leroux
,
C.
, and
Hocquard
,
A.
,
2005
, “
AMRA: Augmented Reality Assistance for Train Maintenance Tasks
,”
In Workshop Industrial Augmented Reality,” 4th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality
(
ISMAR
), Vienna, Austria, Oct. 5–8.
18.
Ong
,
S. K.
,
Yuan
,
M. L.
, and
Nee
,
A. Y. C.
,
2008
, “
Augmented Reality Applications in Manufacturing: A Survey
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res.
,
46
(
10
), pp.
2707
2742
.
19.
Platonov
,
J.
,
Heibel
,
H.
,
Meier
,
P.
, and
Grollmann
,
B.
,
2006
, “
A Mobile Markerless AR System for Maintenance and Repair
,” 5th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (
ISMAR
), Santa Barbara, CA, Oct. 22–25, pp.
105
108
.
20.
Bottecchia
,
S.
,
Jean-Marc
,
C.
, and
Jean-Pierre
,
J.
,
2010
, “
TAC: Augmented Reality System for Collaborative Tele-Assistance in the Field of Maintenance Through Internet
,”
1st Augmented Human International Conference
, Megève, France, Apr. 2–03, p.
14
.
21.
Leila
,
A.
,
Tecchia
,
F.
, and
Huang
,
W.
,
2011
, “
Remote Tele-Assistance System for Maintenance Operators in Mines
,”
11th Underground Coal Operators' Conference
, Wollongong, NSW, Australia, pp.
171
177
.
22.
Gao
,
R.
,
Wang
,
L.
,
Teti
,
R.
,
Dornfeld
,
D.
,
Kumara
,
S.
,
Mori
,
M.
, and
Helu
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Cloud-Enabled Prognosis for Manufacturing
,”
CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol.
,
64
(
2
), pp.
749
772
.
23.
Koochaki
,
J.
,
Bokhorst
,
O. C.
,
Wortmann
,
H.
, and
Klingenberg
,
W.
,
2012
, “
Condition Based Maintenance in the Context of Opportunistic Maintenance
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res.
,
50
(
23
), pp.
6918
6929
.
24.
Knapp
,
G. M.
, and
Wang
,
H.-P.
,
1996
, “
Automated Tactical Maintenance Planning Based on Machine Monitoring
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res.
,
34
(
3
), pp.
753
765
.
25.
Colledani
,
M.
,
Tullio
,
T.
,
Anat
,
F.
,
Benoit
,
I.
,
Lanza
,
G.
,
Schmitt
,
R.
, and
Vancza
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Design and Management of Manufacturing Systems for Production Quality
,”
CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol.
,
63
(
2
), pp.
773
796
.
26.
Teti
,
R.
,
Jemielniak
,
K.
,
O'Donnell
,
G.
, and
Dornfeld
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Advanced Monitoring of Machining Operations
,”
CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol.
,
59
(
2
), pp.
717
739
.
27.
Mourtzis
,
D.
,
Vlachou
,
E.
,
Xanthopoulos
,
N.
,
Givehchi
,
M.
, and
Wang
,
L.
,
2016
, “
Cloud-Based Adaptive Process Planning Considering Availability and Capabilities of Machine Tools
,”
J. Manuf. Syst.
,
39
, pp.
1
8
.
28.
Mehnen
,
J.
,
Tinsley
,
L.
, and
Roy
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Automated In-Service Damage Identification
,”
CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol.
,
63
(
1
), pp.
33
36
.
29.
Li
,
X.
,
Wang
,
L.
, and
Cai
,
N.
,
2004
, “
Machine Vision Based Surface Finish Inspection for Cutting Tool Replacement in Production
,”
Int. J. Prod. Res.
,
42
(
11
), pp.
2279
2287
.
30.
Tapoglou
,
N.
,
Mehnen
,
J.
,
Vlachou
,
E.
,
Doukas
,
M.
,
Milas
,
N.
, and
Mourtzis
,
D.
,
2015
, “
Cloud-Based Platform for Optimal Machining Parameter Selection Based on Function Blocks and Real-Time Monitoring
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
137
(
4
), p.
040909
.
31.
Mourtzis
,
D.
,
Doukas
,
M.
,
Vlachou
,
E.
, and
Xanthopoulos
,
N.
,
2014
, “
Machine Availability Monitoring for Adaptive Holistic Scheduling: A Conceptual Framework for Mass Customization
,”
Proc. CIRP
,
25
, pp.
406
413
.
32.
Mourtzis
,
D.
,
Fotia
,
S.
, and
Doukas
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Performance Indicators for the Evaluation of Product-Service Systems Design: A Review
,”
IFIP International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems
,
Springer International Publishing
,
Tokyo, Japan
, pp.
592
601
.
33.
Schmidt
,
B.
, and
Wang
,
L.
,
2016
, “
Cloud-Enhanced Predictive Maintenance
,”
J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
, pp.
1
9
.
34.
Wang
,
L.
,
2013
, “
Machine Availability Monitoring and Machining Process Planning Towards Cloud Manufacturing
,”
CIRP J. Manuf. Sci. Technol.
,
6
(
4
), pp.
263
273
.
35.
Edrington
,
B.
,
Bingyan
,
Z.
,
Hansel
,
A.
,
Mori
,
M.
, and
Fujishima
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Machine Monitoring System Based on MTConnect Technology
,”
Proc. CIRP
,
22
, pp.
92
97
.
36.
Zhang
,
W.
,
Halang
,
W.
, and
Diedrich
,
C.
,
2003
, “
An Agent-Based Platform for Service Integration in E-Maintenance
,”
IEEE
International Conference on Industrial Technology
, Maribor, Slovenia, Dec. 10–12, Vol.
1
, pp.
426
433
.
37.
Mourtzis
,
D.
,
Schoinochoritis
,
B.
, and
Vlachou
,
E.
,
2015
, “
A New Era of Web Collaboration: Cloud Computing and Its Applications in Manufacturing
,” 8th
IWC
Total Quality Management Advanced and Intelligent Approaches
, Belgrade, Serbia, June 1–5, pp.
11
23
.
38.
Buckholtz
,
B.
,
Ragai
,
I.
, and
Wang
,
L.
,
2016
, “
Remote Equipment Security in Cloud Manufacturing Systems
,”
Int. J. Manuf. Res.
,
11
(
2
), pp.
126
143
.
39.
Mourtzis
,
D.
,
Fotia
,
S.
, and
Vlachou
,
E.
,
2016
, “
PSS Design Evaluation Via KPIs and Lean Design Assistance Supported by the Context Sensitivity Tools
,”
Proc. CIRP
,
56
, pp.
496
501
.
40.
Buyya
,
R.
,
Yeo
,
C. S.
,
Venugopal
,
S.
,
Broberg
,
J.
, and
Brandic
,
I.
,
2009
, “
Cloud Computing and Emerging IT Platforms: Vision, Hype, and Reality for Delivering Computing as the 5th Utility
,”
Future Gener. Comput. Syst.
,
25
(
6
), pp.
599
616
.
41.
Mourtzis
,
D.
,
Vlachou
,
E.
,
Milas
,
N.
, and
Xanthopoulos
,
N.
,
2016
, “
A Cloud-Based Approach for Maintenance of Machine Tools and Equipment Based on Shop-Floor Monitoring
,”
Proc. CIRP
,
41
, pp.
655
660
.
42.
Mourtzis
,
D.
,
Vlachou
,
E.
,
Doukas
,
M.
,
Kanakis
,
N.
,
Xanthopoulos
,
N.
, and
Koutoupes
,
A.
,
2015
, “
Cloud-Based Adaptive Shop-Floor Scheduling Considering Machine Tool Availability
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2015-53025.
43.
Pintzos
,
G.
,
Triantafyllou
,
C.
,
Papakostas
,
N.
,
Mourtzis
,
D.
, and
Chryssolouris
,
G.
,
2016
, “
Assembly Precedence Diagram Generation Through Assembly Tiers Determination
,”
Int. J. Comput. Integr. Manuf.
,
29
(
10
), pp.
1045
1057
.
44.
Baines
,
T.
,
Lightfoot
,
H. W.
,
Evans
,
S.
,
Neely
,
A.
,
Greenough
,
R.
,
Peppard
,
J.
, and
Wilson
,
H.
,
2007
, “
State-of-the-Art in Product-Service Systems
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B
,
221
(
10
), pp.
1543
1552
.
45.
Azarenko
,
A.
,
Roy
,
R.
,
Shehab
,
E.
, and
Tiwari
,
A.
,
2009
, “
Technical Product-Service Systems: Some Implications for the Machine Tool Industry
,”
J. Manuf. Technol. Manage.
,
20
(
5
), pp.
700
722
.
46.
Vuzix
,
2012
, “
Vuzix STAR 1200XL: Product Specifications
,”
Vuzix
,
Rochester, NY
.
47.
LG
,
2012
, “
Nexus 4: Product Specifications
,”
LG
,
Amstelveen, The Netherlands
.
48.
Unity
,
2016
, Unity Technologies, San Francisco, CA, accessed Dec. 10,
2016
, https://unity3d.com/
49.
Milgram
,
P.
,
Takemura
,
P.
,
Utsumi
,
A.
, and
Kishino
,
F.
,
1995
, “
Augmented Reality: A Class of Displays on the Reality-Virtuality Continuum
,”
Photonics for Industrial Applications
,
International Society for Optics and Photonics
,
Bellingham, WA
, pp.
282
292
.
50.
Siltanen
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Theory and Applications of Marker-Based Augmented Reality
,” VTT Science, Espoo, Finland.
51.
Vuforia
,
2015
, PTC Inc., Boston, MA, accessed Dec. 9, 2016, https://www.vuforia.com/
You do not currently have access to this content.