To enhance mechanical and/or electrical properties of composite materials used in additive manufacturing, nanoparticles are oftentimes deposited to form nanocomposite layers. To customize the mechanical and/or electrical properties of the final composite material, the thickness of such nanocomposite layers must be precisely controlled. A thickness model for filter cakes created through spray-assisted vacuum filtration is presented in this paper, to enable the development of advanced thickness controllers. The mass transfer dynamics in the spray atomization and vacuum filtration are studied to derive solid mass, water mass, and filter cake thickness differential area models. A two-loop nonlinear constrained optimization approach is used to identify the unknown parameters in the model. Experiments involving depositing carbon nanofibers in a sheet of filter paper are used to measure the ability of the model to mimic the filtration process.

References

References
1.
Arsha
,
A. G.
,
Jayakumar
,
E.
,
Rajin
,
T. P. D.
,
Antony
,
V.
, and
Pai
,
B. C.
,
2015
, “
Design and Fabrication of Functionally Graded In-Situ Aluminium Composites for Automotive Pistons
,”
Mater. Des.
,
88
, pp.
1201
1209
.
2.
Soutis
,
C.
,
2005
, “
Fibre Reinforced Composites in Aircraft Construction
,”
Prog. Aerosp. Sci.
,
41
(
2
), pp.
143
151
.
3.
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Zhupanska
,
O. I.
,
2015
, “
Lightning Strike Thermal Damage Model for Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites and Its Application to Wind Turbine Blades
,”
Compos. Struct.
,
132
, pp.
1182
1191
.
4.
Mittal
,
G.
,
Dhand
,
V.
,
Rhee
,
K. Y.
,
Park
,
S.
, and
Lee
,
W. R.
,
2015
, “
A Review on Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene as Fillers in Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites
,”
J. Ind. Eng. Chem.
,
21
, pp.
11
25
.
5.
Shahadat
,
M.
,
Teng
,
T. T.
,
Rafatullah
,
M.
, and
Arshad
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Titanium-Based Nanocomposite Materials: A Review of Recent Advances and Perspectives
,”
Colloids Surf.
, B,
126
, pp.
121
137
.
6.
Rushton
,
A.
,
Ward
,
A. S.
, and
Holdich
,
R. G.
,
2000
, “
Filtration Fundamentals
,”
Solid–Liquid Filtration and Separation Technology
,
Wiley
,
Weinheim, Germany
, pp.
35
94
.
7.
Seriani
,
S.
,
Cortellessa
,
A.
,
Belfio
,
S.
,
Sortino
,
M.
,
Totis
,
G.
, and
Gallina
,
P.
,
2015
, “
Automatic Path-Planning Algorithm for Realistic Decorative Robotic Painting
,”
Automat. Constr.
,
56
, pp.
67
75
.
8.
Liu
,
Z.
,
Zhang
,
W.
,
Ouyang
,
J.
, and
Zhou
,
Y.
,
2015
, “
Novel Thermal Barrier Coatings Based on Rare-Earth Zirconates/YSZ Double-Ceramic-Layer System Deposited by Plasma Spraying
,”
J. Alloys Compd.
,
647
, pp.
438
444
.
9.
Aziz
,
F.
, and
Ismail
,
A. F.
,
2015
, “
Spray Coating Methods for Polymer Solar Cells Fabrication: A Review
,”
Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.
,
39
, pp.
416
425
.
10.
Pham
,
N. P.
,
Burghartz
,
J. N.
, and
Sarro
,
P. M.
,
2003
, “
A Model for Film Thickness Using Direct Spray Coating
,”
5th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference
,
M. K.
Iyer
,
K. C.
Toh
, and
Y. C.
Mui
, Singapore, pp.
773
776
.
11.
True
,
M. A.
,
1983
, “
Modeling of Electrostatic Spray Plumes
,”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.
,
1A–19
(
5
), pp.
754
758
.
12.
Li
,
M.
,
Shi
,
D.
, and
Christofides
,
P. D.
,
2003
, “
Modeling and Control of an Experimental HVOF Thermal Spray Process
,”
2003 American Control Conference
, Denver, CO, pp.
3973
3979
.
13.
Bejan
,
A.
,
1993
,
Heat Transfer
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
14.
Beneventi
,
D.
,
Chaussy
,
D.
,
Curtil
,
D.
,
Zolin
,
L.
,
Gerbaldi
,
C.
, and
Penazzi
,
N.
,
2014
, “
Highly Porous Paper Loading With Microfibrillated Cellulose by Spray Coating on Wet Substrates
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
53
(
27
), pp.
10982
10989
.
15.
Duncan
,
S.
,
Jones
,
P.
, and
Wellstead
,
P.
,
2005
, “
A Frequency-Domain Approach to Determining the Path Separation for Spray Coating
,”
IEEE Trans. Autom. Sci. Eng.
,
2
(
3
), pp.
233
239
.
16.
Huang
,
X.
,
Zhou
,
Q.
,
Zheng
,
L.
, and
Li
,
X.
,
2015
, “
Monitoring Spatial Uniformity of Particle Distributions in Manufacturing Processes Using the K Function
,”
IEEE. Trans. Autom. Sci. Eng.
,
PP
(
99
), pp.
1
11
.
17.
Lefebvre
,
1989
,
Atomization and Sprays
,
Hemisphere
,
New York
.
18.
Suh
,
S. H.
,
Woo
,
I. K.
, and
Noh
,
S. K.
,
1993
, “
Development of an Automatic Trajectory Planning System (ATPS) for Spray Painting Robots
,” 1991
IEEE
International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Apr. 9–11, Sacramento, CA, pp.
1948
1955
.
19.
Conner
,
D. C.
,
Greenfield
,
A.
,
Atkar
,
P. N.
,
Rizzi
,
A. A.
, and
Choset
,
H.
,
2005
, “
Paint Deposition Modeling for Trajectory Planning on Automotive Surfaces
,”
IEEE Trans. Autom. Sci. Eng.
,
2
(
4
), pp.
381
392
.
20.
Hertling
,
P.
,
Høg
,
L.
,
Larsen
,
R.
,
Perram
,
J. W.
, and
Petersen
,
H. G.
,
1996
, “
Task Curve Planning for Painting Robots—Part I: Process Modeling and Calibration
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom.
,
12
(
2
), pp.
324
330
.
21.
Shen
,
H.
,
Mark
,
A.
,
Thompson
,
K.
,
Xu
,
Y.
,
Liang
,
F.
,
Gou
,
J.
, and
Mabbot
,
B.
,
2015
, “
Thermal Modeling and Coefficient Identification of Shape Memory Polymer Nanocomposites Structure
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
106
(
8
), pp.
1
4
.
You do not currently have access to this content.