Setting optimum process parameters is very critical in achieving a sound friction stir weld joint. Understanding the formation of defects and developing techniques to minimize them can help in improving the overall weld strength. The most common defects in friction stir welding (FSW) are tunnel defects, cavities, and excess flash formation, which are caused due to incorrect tool rotational or advancing speed. In this paper, the formation of these defects is explained with the help of an experimentally verified 3D finite element (FE) model. It was observed that the asymmetricity in temperature distribution varies for different types of defects formed during FSW. The location of the defect also changes based on the shoulder induced flow and pin induced flow during FSW. Besides formation of defects like excess flash, cavity defects, tunnel/wormhole defects, two types of groove like defects are also discussed in this paper. By studying the different types of defects formed, a methodology is proposed to recognize these defects and counter them by modifying the process parameters to achieve a sound joint for a displacement-based FSW process.

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