A time-indexed integer programing approach is developed to optimize the manufacturing schedule of a factory for minimal energy cost under real-time pricing (RTP) of electricity. The approach is demonstrated using a flow shop operating during different time periods (i.e., day shift, swing shift, and night shift) in a microgrid, which also serves residential and commercial users. Results show that electricity cost can be reduced by 6.2%, 12.3%, and 21.5% for the three time periods considered, respectively. Additionally, a 6.3% cost reduction can be achieved by the residential and commercial buildings through adopting energy-conscious control strategies in this specific case study example.

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