Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is drawing considerable contemporary interest due to its characteristics of high material utilization, great flexibility in product design, and inherent moldless process. Arc-based AM (AAM) is a promising AM method with high deposition rate and favorable buildup quality. Components made by AAM are fabricated through superimposed weld beads deposited from metal wire. Unlike laser-based additive manufacturing, AAM is more difficult to control. Because of the large energy input of the energy source and the liquidity of the melting metal material, bottleneck problems like shrinkage porosity, cracking, residual stresses, and deformation occur. Resultant poor geometrical accuracy and mechanical property keep AAM from industrial application. Especially in the aerospace industry, structural and mechanical property specifications are stringent and critical. This paper presents a novel hybrid manufacturing method by using hot-rolling process to assist the arc welding to solve the above problems. Initially, a miniature metamorphic rolling mechanism (MRM) was developed using metamorphic mechanism theory. Configuration and topology of the MRM can change according to the feature of the components to roll the top and lateral surfaces of the bead. Subsequently, three single-pass multilayer walls were built, respectively, for comparison. The rolled results show significant improvement in geometrical accuracy of the built features. Tensile test results demonstrate improvement in mechanical properties. The improved mechanical properties of rolled specimens are superior to wrought material in travel direction. Microstructure comparisons indicate columnar grains observed in vertical direction and fusion zones were suppressed. Eventually, fabrication of a large-scale aerospace component validates the feasibility of industry application for the hybrid manufacturing technology.
Improvement in Geometrical Accuracy and Mechanical Property for Arc-Based Additive Manufacturing Using Metamorphic Rolling Mechanism
Manuscript received March 2, 2015; final manuscript received October 25, 2015; published online June 23, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Jack Zhou.
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Xie, Y., Zhang, H., and Zhou, F. (June 23, 2016). "Improvement in Geometrical Accuracy and Mechanical Property for Arc-Based Additive Manufacturing Using Metamorphic Rolling Mechanism." ASME. J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. November 2016; 138(11): 111002. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4032079
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