High rake angle orthogonal machining of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) parallel to the basal plane was carried out to synthesize few layers of graphene. The quality of the graphite sheets was found to be an alliance of any pre-existing defects in the HOPG and the nature of the machining process itself. Presence of pre-existing defects such as kinks and discontinuous layers were observed during the lateral examination of HOPG structure prior to machining. Evidence of flat, folded, and rolled structures were found in exfoliated graphite sheets in addition to defects such as two types of kink bands. Multiple spikes in measured cutting forces were seen during machining due to disturbances in tool movement. Molecular dynamic simulations were carried out to support the argument that specific pre-existing defects such as discontinuous layers cause the marked disturbances during machining.

References

References
1.
Xu
,
Q.
,
Bao
,
J.
,
Rioux
,
R. M.
,
Perez-Castillejos
,
R.
,
Capasso
,
F.
, and
Whitesides
,
G. M.
,
2007
, “
Fabrication of Large-Area Patterned Nanostructures for Optical Applications by Nanoskiving
,”
Nano Lett.
,
7
(
9
), pp.
2800
2805
.
2.
Arora
,
I.
,
Samuel
,
J.
, and
Koratkar
,
N.
,
2013
, “
Experimental Investigation of the Machinability of Epoxy Reinforced With Graphene Platelets
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
135
(
4
), p.
041007
.
3.
Blumer
,
M. J. F.
,
Gahleitner
,
P.
,
Narzt
,
T.
,
Handl
,
C.
, and
Ruthensteiner
,
B.
,
2002
, “
Ribbons of Semithin Sections: An Advanced Method With a New Type of Diamond Knife
,”
J. Neurosci. Methods
,
120
(
1
), pp.
11
16
.
4.
Mayerich
,
D.
,
Abbott
,
L.
, and
McCormick
,
B.
,
2008
, “
Knife-Edge Scanning Microscopy for Imaging and Reconstruction of Three-Dimensional Anatomical Structures of the Mouse Brain
,”
J. Microsc.
,
231
(
1
), pp.
134
143
.
5.
Ericson
,
M. L.
, and
Lindberg
,
H.
,
1997
, “
Design and Potential of Instrumented Ultramicrotomy
,”
Polymer
,
38
(
17
), pp.
4485
4489
.
6.
Lipomi
,
D. J.
,
Kats
,
M. A.
,
Kim
,
P.
,
Kang
,
S. H.
,
Aizenberg
,
J.
,
Capasso
,
F.
, and
Whitesides
,
G. M.
,
2010
, “
Fabrication and Replication of Arrays of Single- or Multicomponent Nanostructures by Replica Molding and Mechanical Sectioning
,”
ACS Nano
,
4
(
7
), pp.
4017
4026
.
7.
Lipomi
,
D. J.
,
Martinez
,
R. V.
,
Rioux
,
R. M.
,
Cademartiri
,
L.
,
Reus
,
W. F.
, and
Whitesides
,
G. M.
,
2010
, “
Survey of Materials for Nanoskiving and Influence of the Cutting Process on the Nanostructures Produced
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
,
2
(
9
), pp.
2503
2514
.
8.
Lipomi
,
D. J.
,
Martinez
,
R. V.
, and
Whitesides
,
G. M.
,
2011
, “
Use of Thin Sectioning (Nanoskiving) to Fabricate Nanostructures for Electronic and Optical Applications
,”
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
,
50
(
37
), pp.
8566
8583
.
9.
Gnaegi
,
H.
,
Studer
,
D.
,
Bos
,
E.
,
Peters
,
P.
, and
Pierson
,
J.
,
2008
, “
Ultramicrotomy in Biology and Materials Science: An Overview
,”
EMC 2008 14th European Microscopy Congress
, M. Luysberg, K. Tillmann and T. Weirich, eds., Aachen, Germany, Sept. 1–5, Springer, Berlin, pp.
797
798
.
10.
Dempster
,
W. T.
,
1942
, “
The Mechanics of Paraffin Sectioning by the Microtome
,”
Anat. Rec.
,
84
(
3
), pp.
241
267
.
11.
Atkins
,
A. G.
, and
Vincent
,
J. F. V.
,
1984
, “
An Instrumented Microtome for Improved Histological Sections and the Measurement of Fracture Toughness
,”
J. Mater. Sci. Lett.
,
3
(
4
), pp.
310
312
.
12.
Dawson
,
I. M.
, and
Follettm
,
E. A. C.
,
1959
, “
An Electron Microscope Study of Synthetic Graphite
,”
Proc. R. Soc. London A.
,
253
(
1274
), pp.
390
402
.
13.
Clinton
,
D.
, and
Kaye
,
G.
,
1965
, “
Characterization of Bonded Carbons by Ultra-Thin Sectioning
,”
Carbon
,
2
(
4
), pp.
341
348
.
14.
Rietmeijer
,
F. J. M.
,
1991
, “
Mixed Layering in Disordered Sri Lanka Graphite
,”
Carbon
,
29
(
4–5
), pp.
669
675
.
15.
Wen
,
K.
,
Marrow
,
J.
, and
Marsden
,
B.
,
2008
, “
Microcracks in Nuclear Graphite and Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG)
,”
J. Nucl. Mater.
,
381
(
1–2
), pp.
199
203
.
16.
Jayasena
,
B.
, and
Subbiah
,
S.
,
2011
, “
A Novel Mechanical Cleavage Method for Synthesizing Few-Layer Graphenes
,”
Nanoscale Res. Lett.
,
6
(
1
), pp.
95
101
.
17.
Matzelle
,
T. R.
,
Gnaegi
,
H.
,
Ricker
,
A.
, and
Reichelt
,
R.
,
2003
, “
Characterization of the Cutting Edge of Glass and Diamond Knives for Ultramicrotomy by Scanning Force Microscopy Using Cantilevers With a Defined Tip Geometry. Part II
,”
J. Microsc.
,
209
(
2
), pp.
113
117
.
18.
Chang
,
H.
, and
Bard
,
A. J.
,
1991
, “
Observation and Characterization by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Structures Generated by Cleaving Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite
,”
Langmuir
,
7
(
6
), pp.
1143
1153
.
19.
Roddaro
,
S.
,
Pingue
,
P.
,
Piazza
,
V.
,
Pellegrini
,
V.
, and
Beltram
,
F.
,
2007
, “
The Optical Visibility of Graphene: Interference Colors of Ultrathin Graphite on SiO2
,”
Nano Lett.
,
7
(
9
), pp.
2707
2710
.
20.
Reina
,
A.
,
Jia
,
X.
,
Ho
,
J.
,
Nezich
,
D.
,
Son
,
H.
,
Bulovic
,
V.
,
Dresselhaus
,
M. S.
, and
Kong
,
J.
,
2008
, “
Large Area, Few-Layer Graphene Films on Arbitrary Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition
,”
Nano Lett.
,
9
(
1
), pp.
30
35
.
21.
Soldano
,
C.
,
Mahmood
,
A.
, and
Dujardin
,
E.
,
2010
, “
Production, Properties and Potential of Graphene
,”
Carbon
,
48
(
8
), pp.
2127
2150
.
22.
Roscoe
,
C.
, and
Thomas
,
J. M.
,
1967
, “
The Identification and Some Physico-Chemical Consequences of Non-Basal Edge and Screw Dislocations in Graphite
,”
Proc. R. Soc. London A
,
297
(
1450
), pp.
397
407
.
23.
Al-Amoudi
,
A.
,
Studer
,
D.
, and
Dubochet
,
J.
,
2005
, “
Cutting Artefacts and Cutting Process in Vitreous Sections for Cryo-Electron Microscopy
,”
J. Struct. Biol.
,
150
(
1
), pp.
109
121
.
24.
Liu
,
Z.
,
Zheng
,
Q. S.
, and
Liu
,
J. Z.
,
2010
, “
Stripe/Kink Microstructures Formed in Mechanical Peeling of Highly Orientated Pyrolytic Graphite
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
96
(
20
), p.
201909
.
25.
Barsoum
,
M. W.
,
Farber
,
L.
, and
El-Raghy
,
T.
,
1999
, “
Dislocations, Kink Bands, and Room-Temperature Plasticity of Ti3SiC2
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. A
,
30
(
7
), pp.
1727
1738
.
26.
Barsoum
,
M. W.
,
Murugaiah
,
A.
,
Kalidindi
,
S.
,
Zhen
,
R. T.
, and
Gogotsi
,
Y.
,
2004
, “
Kink Bands, Nonlinear Elasticity and Nanoindentations in Graphite
,”
Carbon
,
42
(
8–9
), pp.
1435
1445
.
27.
Frank
,
F. C.
, and
Stroh
,
A. N.
,
1952
, “
On the Theory of Kinking
,”
Proc. Phys. Soc. London B
,
65
(
10
), pp.
811
821
.
28.
Sun
,
Z.
,
Zhang
,
Z.
,
Hashimoto
,
H.
, and
Abe
,
T.
,
2002
, “
Ternary Compound Ti3SiC2: Part II. Deformation and Fracture Behaviour at Different Temperatures
,”
Mater. Trans. JIM
,
43
(
3
), pp.
432
435
.
29.
Jayasena
,
B.
,
Subbiah
,
S.
, and
Reddy
,
C. D.
,
2014
, “
Formation of Carbon Nanoscrolls During Wedge-Based Mechanical Exfoliation of HOPG
,”
ASME J. Micro Nano Manuf.
,
2
(
1
), p.
011003
.
30.
Jayasena
,
B.
,
Subbiah
,
S.
, and
Reddy
,
C. D.
,
2012
, “
A Mechanical Route to Carbon Nanoscrolls
,”
12th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology
, Birmingham, UK, pp.
1
5
.
31.
Xie
,
X.
,
Ju
,
L.
,
Feng
,
X.
,
Sun
,
Y.
,
Zhou
,
R.
,
Liu
,
K.
,
Fan
,
S.
,
Li
,
Q.
, and
Jiang
,
K.
,
2009
, “
Controlled Fabrication of High-Quality Carbon Nanoscrolls From Monolayer Graphene
,”
Nano Lett.
,
9
(
7
), pp.
2565
2570
.
32.
Zheng
,
J.
,
Liu
,
H.
,
Wu
,
B.
,
Guo
,
Y.
,
Wu
,
T.
,
Yu
,
G.
,
Liu
,
Y.
, and
Zhu
,
D.
,
2011
, “
Production of High-Quality Carbon Nanoscrolls With Microwave Spark Assistance in Liquid Nitrogen
,”
Adv. Mater.
,
23
(
21
), pp.
2460
2463
.
33.
Plimpton
,
S.
,
1995
, “
Fast Parallel Algorithms for Short-Range Molecular Dynamics
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
117
(
1
), pp.
1
19
.
34.
Stuart
,
S. J.
,
Tutein
,
A. B.
, and
Harrison
,
J. A.
,
2000
, “
A Reactive Potential for Hydrocarbons With Intermolecular Interactions
,”
J. Chem. Phys.
,
112
(
14
), pp.
6472
6486
.
35.
Jayasena
,
B.
,
Reddy
,
C. D.
, and
Subbiah
,
S.
,
2013
, “
Separation, Folding and Shearing of Graphene Layers During Wedge-Based Mechanical Exfoliation
,”
Nanotechnology
,
24
(
20
), pp.
205301
205308
.
You do not currently have access to this content.