The tube flaring process has been traditionally used to expand one end of a tube without changing its cross-sectional area. This simple process typically forms the product using a single punch. To delay failure and enhance formability, a two-step flaring process can be used. For example, if a significant elliptical flared shape is attempted in a one-step process, a necking/tearing failure would occur on the major axis of the ellipse. However, if a two-step process, starting with a mildly elliptical punch and followed by the final, sharply elliptical punch is used instead, the desired elliptical shape can be achieved. In this paper, the effects of the punch geometry of the first step on the deformation paths are numerically analyzed. By manipulating the deformation path, failure can be delayed so that higher formability is achieved. The numerical model is validated by comparison with experimental results.

References

References
1.
Almeida
,
B. P. P.
,
Alves
,
M. L.
,
Rosa
,
P. A. R.
,
Brito
,
A. G.
, and
Martins
,
P. A. F.
,
2006
, “
Expansion and Reduction of Thin-Walled Tubes Using a Die: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
,
46
(
12
), pp.
1643
1652
.10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2005.08.018
2.
Gouveia
,
B. P. P.
,
Alves
,
M. L.
,
Rosa
,
P. A. R.
, and
Martins
,
P. A. F.
,
2006
, “
Compression Beading and Nosing of Thin-Walled Tubes Using a Die: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation
,”
Int. J. Mech. Mater. Des.
,
3
(
1
), pp.
7
16
.10.1007/s10999-006-9009-8
3.
Lu
,
Y. H.
,
2005
, “
Study of Perform and Loading Rate in the Tube Nosing Process by Spherical Die
,”
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng.
,
194
(
25–26
), pp.
2839
2858
.10.1016/j.cma.2004.07.032
4.
Alves
,
L. M.
,
Pardal
,
T. C. D.
, and
Martins
,
P. A. F.
,
2010
, “
Nosing Thin-Walled Tubes Into Axisymmetric Seamless Reservoirs Using Recyclable Mandrels
,”
J. Cleaner Prod.
,
18
(
16
), pp.
1740
1749
.10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.06.025
5.
Huang
,
Y. M.
,
2004
, “
Finite Element Analysis of Tube Flaring Process With a Conical Tool
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
24
(
1–2
), pp.
91
97
.10.1007/s00170-003-1704-0
6.
Rosa
,
P. A. R.
,
Rodrigues
,
J. M. C.
, and
Martins
,
P. A. F.
,
2003
, “
External Inversion of Thin Walled Tubes Using a Die: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
,
43
(
8
), pp.
787
796
.10.1016/S0890-6955(03)00062-2
7.
Rosa
,
P. A. R.
,
Rodrigues
,
J. M. C.
, and
Martins
,
P. A. F.
,
2004
, “
Internal Inversion of Thin Walled Tubes Using a Die: Experimental and Theoretical Investigation
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
,
44
(
7–8
), pp.
775
784
.10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2004.01.013
8.
Alves
,
M. L.
,
Almeida
,
B. P. P.
,
Rosa
,
P. A. R.
, and
Martins
,
P. A. F.
,
2006
, “
End Forming of Thin-Walled Tubes
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
177
(
1–3
), pp.
183
187
.10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.04.040
9.
Yang
,
H.
,
Zhichao
,
S.
, and
Yingjun
,
J.
,
2001
, “
FEM Analysis of Mechanism of Free Deformation Under Dieless Constraint in Axial Compressive Forming Process of Tube
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
115
(
3
), pp.
367
372
.10.1016/S0924-0136(01)01018-4
10.
Sun
,
Z.
, and
Yang
,
H.
,
2002
, “
Development of a Finite Element Simulation System for the Tube Axial Compressive Precision Forming Process
,”
Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf.
,
42
(
1
), pp.
15
20
.10.1016/S0890-6955(01)00100-6
11.
Sekhon
,
G. S.
,
Gupta
,
N. K.
, and
Gupta
,
P. K.
,
2003
, “
An Analysis of External Inversion of Round Tubes
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
133
(
3
), pp.
243
256
.10.1016/S0924-0136(02)00438-7
12.
Manabe
,
K.
, and
Nishimura
,
H.
,
1983
, “
Forming Loads in Tube Flaring With Conical Punch V
,”
J. Jpn. Soc. Technol. Plast.
,
24
(
264
), pp.
47
52
.
13.
Manabe
,
K.
, and
Nishimura
,
H.
,
1983
, “
Stress and Strain Distributions in Tube Flaring With Conical Punch-Study on Nosing and Flaring of Tubes VI
,”
J. Jpn. Soc. Technol. Plast.
,
24
(
266
), pp.
276
282
.
14.
Manabe
,
K.
, and
Nishimura
,
H.
,
1984
, “
Contact Pressure Distributions in Nosing and Flaring of Tubes With a Conical Tool
,”
J. Jpn. Inst. Light Met.
,
34
(
8
), pp.
439
445
.10.2464/jilm.34.439
15.
Korkolis
,
Y. P.
, and
Kyriakides
,
S.
,
2009
, “
Path-Dependent Failure of Inflated Aluminum Tubes
,”
Int. J. Plast.
,
25
(
11
), pp.
2059
2080
.10.1016/j.ijplas.2008.12.016
16.
Baba
,
A.
,
Tozawa
,
Y.
, and
Kawada
,
K.
,
1972
, “
Analysis of the Deformation Process in the Forming of Tubes
,”
J. Jpn. Soc. Technol. Plast.
,
13
(
132
), pp.
33
41
.
17.
Kawada
,
K.
, and
Tozawa
,
Y.
,
1975
, “
Analysis of the Deformation Process in Forming of Tube for Elastic, Work-Hardening Material
,”
J. Jpn. Soc. Technol. Plast.
,
16
(
179
), pp.
1132
1138
.
18.
Kawada
,
K.
, and
Tozawa
,
Y.
,
1979
, “
Effects of Mechanical Properties of the Materials on the Forming of Tubes
,”
J. Jpn. Soc. Technol. Plast.
,
20
(
219
), pp.
299
306
.
19.
Huang
,
Y. M.
, and
Huang
,
Y. M.
,
2001
, “
Elasto-Plastic Finite-Element Analysis of the Axisymmetric Tube-Flaring Process With Conical Punch
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
18
(
6
), pp.
390
398
.10.1007/s001700170048
20.
Yeh
,
F. H.
,
2007
, “
Study of Tube Flaring Forming Limit in the Tube Flaring Process
,”
J. Strain Anal.
,
42
(
5
), pp.
315
342
.10.1243/03093247JSA272
21.
Marciniak
,
Z.
, and
Duncan
,
J. L.
,
1992
,
The Mechanics of Sheet Metal Forming
,
Edward Arnold
,
London
.
22.
Fischer
,
F. D.
,
Rammerstorfer
,
F. G.
, and
Daxner
,
T.
,
2006
, “
Flaring—An Analytical Approach
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
48
(
11
), pp.
1246
1255
.10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2006.06.004
23.
Daxner
,
T.
,
Rammerstorfer
,
F. G.
, and
Fischer
,
F. D.
,
2005
, “
Instability Phenomena During the Conical Expansion of Circular Cylindrical Shells
,”
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng.
,
194
(
21–24
), pp.
2591
2603
.10.1016/j.cma.2004.07.047
24.
Karrech
,
A.
, and
Seibi
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Analytical Model for the Expansion of Tube Under Tension
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
210
(
2
), pp.
356
362
.10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2009.09.024
25.
Parasiz
,
S. A.
,
VanBenthysen
,
R.
, and
Kinsey
,
B. L.
,
2010
, “
Deformation Size Effects Due to Specimen and Grain Size in Mircobending
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
132
(
1
), p.
011018
.10.1115/1.4000943
26.
Wang
,
L.
,
Korkolis
,
Y.
, and
Kinsey
,
B. L.
,
2012
, “
Investigation of Strain Gradients and Magnitudes During Microbending
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
134
(
4
), p.
041011
.10.1115/1.4007066
27.
Ali
,
M.
,
Manabe
,
K.
, and
Mabuchi
,
T.
,
2008
, “
Deformation Characteristics of Microtubes in Flaring Test
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
201
(
1–3
), pp.
214
219
.10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.11.230
28.
Cao
,
J.
,
Krishnan
,
N.
,
Wang
,
Z.
,
Lu
,
H.
,
Liu
,
W. K.
, and
Swanson
,
A.
,
2004
, “
Microforming: Experimental Investigation of the Extrusion Process for Micropins and Its Numerical Simulation Using RKEM
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
126
(
4
), pp.
642
652
.10.1115/1.1813468
29.
Wu
,
W.
,
Huang
,
Y.
,
Malhotra
,
R.
,
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Cao
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Titanium Microtube Elliptical Flaring
,”
Proceedings of the International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference
,
ASME
Paper No. MSEC2010-34184, pp.
669
676
.10.1115/MSEC2010-34184
30.
Li
,
S.
,
He
,
J.
,
Xia
,
Z. C.
,
Zeng
,
D.
, and
Hou
,
B.
,
2014
, “
Bifurcation Analysis of Forming Limits for an Orthotropic Sheet Metal
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
136
(
5
), p.
051005
.10.1115/1.4027757
31.
He
,
J.
,
Xia
,
Z. C.
,
Li
,
S.
, and
Zeng
,
D.
,
2013
, “
M–K Analysis of Forming Limit Diagram Under Stretch-Bending
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
135
(
4
), p.
041017
.10.1115/1.4024536
32.
Okazaki
,
K.
,
Kagawa
,
M.
, and
Conrad
,
H.
,
1980
,
Titanium 80
,
H.
Kimura
and
O.
Izumi
, eds.,
TMS-AIME
,
Warrendale, PA
, p.
863
.
33.
Pishbin
,
H.
, and
Gillis
,
P. P.
,
1992
, “
Forming Limit Diagrams Calculated Using Hill's Non-Quadratic Yield Criterion
,”
Metall. Trans. A
,
23A
(
10
), pp.
2817
2831
.10.1007/BF02651760
34.
Arrieux
,
R.
,
1987
, “
Determination of the Forming Limit Stress Curve for Anisotropic Sheets
,”
Ann. CIRP
,
36
(
1
), pp.
195
198
.10.1016/S0007-8506(07)62584-0
35.
Stoughton
,
T. B.
,
2001
, “
Stress-Based Forming Limits in Sheet-Metal Forming
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
123
(
4
), pp.
417
422
.10.1115/1.1398083
36.
Sakash
,
A.
,
Moondra
,
S.
, and
Kinsey
,
B.
,
2006
, “
Effect of Yield Criterion on Numerical Simulation Support for a Stress Based Failure Criterion
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
128
(
3
), pp.
436
444
.10.1115/1.2204951
37.
Kinsey
,
B.
,
Moondra
,
S.
, and
Sakash
,
A.
,
2006
, “
Robust Prediction of Forming Severity Using a Stress Based Failure Criterion for Sheet Metal
,”
Proceedings of the North American Manufacturing Research Conference
,
NAMRC
, Vol.
34
, pp.
491
498
.
38.
Hasan
,
R.
,
Kasikci
,
T.
,
Tsukrov
,
I.
, and
Kinsey
,
B. L.
,
2013
, “
Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Key Assumptions in Analytical Failure Models for Sheet Metal Forming
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
136
(
1
), p.
011013
.10.1115/1.4025567
39.
Korkolis
,
Y. P.
, and
Kyriakides
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Hydroforming of Anisotropic Aluminum Tubes: Part I—Experiments
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
53
(
2
), pp.
75
82
.10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2010.11.003
40.
Korkolis
,
Y. P.
, and
Kyriakides
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Hydroforming of Anisotropic Aluminum Tubes: Part II—Analysis
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
,
53
(
2
), pp.
83
90
.10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2010.11.004
41.
Giagmouris
,
T.
,
Kyriakides
,
S.
,
Korkolis
,
Y. P.
, and
Lee
,
L.-H.
,
2010
, “
On the Localization and Failure in Aluminum Shells Due to Crushing-Induced Bending and Tension
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
,
47
(
20
), pp.
2680
2692
.10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2010.05.023
42.
Korkolis
,
Y. P.
,
Kyriakides
,
S.
,
Giagmouris
,
T.
, and
Lee
,
L.-H.
,
2010
, “
Constitutive Modeling and Rupture Predictions of Al-6061-T6 Tubes Under Biaxial Loading Paths
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
77
(
2010
), p.
064501
.10.1115/1.4001940
43.
Korkolis
,
Y. P.
, and
Kyriakides
,
S.
,
2008
, “
Inflation and Burst of Anisotropic Aluminum Tubes for Hydroforming Applications
,”
Int. J. Plast.
,
24
(
3
), pp.
509
543
.10.1016/j.ijplas.2007.07.010
You do not currently have access to this content.