Electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3), a metallic layer-additive manufacturing process, uses a high-power electron beam in conjunction with a metal feed wire to create a molten pool on a substrate, which on solidification produces a component of the desired configuration made of sequentially deposited layers. During the build-up of each solidified layer, the substrate is translated with respect to the electron beam and the feed wire. EBF3 products are similar to conventional cast products with regard to the as-deposited (AD) microstructure and typical mechanical properties. Inconel 718 (IN 718), a high-temperature superalloy with attractive mechanical and oxidation properties well suited for aerospace applications, is typically used in the wrought form. The present study examines the evolution of microstructure, crystallographic texture, and mechanical properties of a block of IN 718 fabricated via the EBF3 process. Specimens extracted out of this block, both in the AD and in a subsequently heat treated (HT) condition, were subjected to (1) microstructural characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); (2) in-plane elastic modulus, tensile strength, and microhardness evaluations; and (3) crystallographic texture characterization using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Salient conclusions stemming from this study are: (1) mechanical properties of the EBF3-processed IN 718 block are strongly affected by texture as evidenced by their dependence on orientation relative to the EBF3 fabrication direction, with the AD EBF3 properties generally being significantly reduced compared to wrought IN 718; (2) significant improvement in both strength and modulus of the EBF3 product to levels nearly equal to those for wrought IN 718 may be achieved through heat treatment.
Correlation Between Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in an Inconel 718 Deposit Produced Via Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication
Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 8, 2014; final manuscript received September 2, 2014; published online October 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Joseph Beaman.
This material is declared a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
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Tayon, W. A., Shenoy, R. N., Redding, M. R., Keith Bird, R., and Hafley, R. A. (October 24, 2014). "Correlation Between Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in an Inconel 718 Deposit Produced Via Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication." ASME. J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. December 2014; 136(6): 061005. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4028509
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