Ultrasonic metal welding is widely used for joining multiple layers of dissimilar metals, such as aluminum/copper battery tabs welding onto copper busbars. It is therefore important to have a robust product/process design using ultrasonic metal welding that ensures consistent welds with desired quality. In this work, the effects of longitudinal and flexural vibrations of the battery tab during ultrasonic welding on the development of axial normal stresses that occasionally cause cracks near the weld area are studied by applying a one-dimensional continuous vibration model for the battery tab. Analysis results indicate that fracture could occur near the weld area, due to low cycle fatigue as a result of large dynamic stresses induced by resonant flexural vibration of the battery tab during welding. This study provides a fundamental understanding of battery tab dynamics during ultrasonic welding and its effects on weld quality, and can be used to develop guidelines for product/process design of ultrasonically welded battery tabs.

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