The paper reports an experimental study that investigates part demoulding behavior in micro-injection moulding with a focus on the effects of pressure and temperature on the demoulding forces. In particular, the demoulding performance of a representative microfluidics part was studied as a function of four process parameters, melt temperature, mould temperature, holding pressure, and injection speed, employing the design of experiment approach. In addition, the results obtained using different combinations of process parameters were analyzed to identify the best processing conditions in regards to demoulding behavior of microparts when utilizing a COC polymer to mould them.

References

References
1.
Mani
,
M. R.
,
Surace
,
R.
,
Ferreira
,
P.
,
Segal
,
J.
,
Fassi
,
I.
, and
Ratchev
,
S.
,
2013
, “
Process Parameter Effects on Dimensional Accuracy of Micro-Injection Moulded Part
,”
ASME J. Micro Nano-Manuf.
,
1
(
3
), p.
031003
.10.1115/1.4025073
2.
Whitesides
,
G. M.
,
2006
, “
The Origins and the Future of Microfluidics. Lab on Chip
,”
Nature
,
422
(
7101
), pp.
368
373
.10.1038/nature05058
3.
Trotta
,
G.
,
Bellantone
,
V.
,
Surace
,
R.
, and
Fassi
,
I.
,
2012
, “
Effects of Process Parameters on the Properties of Replicated Polymeric Parts
,”
ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference
, pp.
169
176
.
4.
Yao
,
D.
, and
Kim
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Scaling Issues in Miniaturization of Injection Molded Parts
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
126
(
4
), pp.
733
739
.10.1115/1.1813479
5.
Arnaud
,
B.
,
Sébastien
,
J.
,
Paul
,
B.
, and
Philippe
,
R.
,
2003
, “
Microstereolithography: A Review
,”
Proceedings of the Material Research Society Symposium, Rapid Prototyping Technologies
, Vol.
758
, pp.
3
15
.
6.
Melchels
,
F. P. W.
,
Feijen
,
J.
, and
Grijpma
,
D. W.
,
2010
, “
A Review on Stereolithography and Its Applications in Biomedical Engineering
,”
Biomaterials
,
31
(
24
), pp.
6121
6130
.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.04.050
7.
Regenfuss
,
P.
,
Streek
,
A.
,
Hartwig
,
L.
,
Klötzer
,
S.
,
Brabant
,
Th.
,
Horn
,
M.
,
Ebert
,
R.
, and
Exner
,
H.
,
2007
, “
Principles of Laser Micro Sintering
,”
Rapid Prototyping J.
,
13
(
4
), pp.
204
212
.10.1108/13552540710776151
8.
Said
,
A. A.
,
Dugan
,
M.
,
Bado
,
P.
,
Bellouard
,
Y.
,
Scott
,
A.
, and
Mabesa
,
J. R.
, Jr
.,
2004
, “
Manufacturing by Laser Direct-Write of Three-Dimensional Devices Containing Optical and Microfluidic Networks
,”
Proc. SPIE
,
5339
, pp.
194
204
.10.1117/12.533540
9.
Attia
,
U. M.
,
Marson
,
S.
, and
Alcock
,
J. R.
, “
Micro-Injection Moulding of Polymer Microfluidic Devices
,”
Microfluid. Nanofluid.
,
7
(
1
), pp.
1
28
.10.1007/s10404-009-0421-x
10.
Haberstroh
,
E.
, and
Brandt
,
M.
,
2002
, “
Determination of Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastics Suitable for Micro Systems
,”
Macromol. Mater. Eng.
,
287
(
12
), pp.
881
888
.10.1002/mame.200290023
11.
Navabpour
,
P.
,
Teer
,
D. G.
,
Hitt
,
D. J.
, and
Gilbert
,
M.
,
2006
, “
Evaluation of Non-Stick Properties of Magnetron-Sputtered Coatings for Moulds Used for the Processing of Polymers
,”
Surf. Coatings Technol.
,
201
(
6
), pp.
3802
3809
.10.1016/j.surfcoat.2006.06.042
12.
Menges
,
G.
,
1993
, “
How to Make Injection Molds
,”
G.
Menges
and
P.
Mohren
, eds.,
Hanser Publisher
,
Munich, Vienna, New York
.
13.
Heyderman
,
L. J.
,
Schift
,
H.
,
David
,
C.
,
Gobrecht
,
J.
, and
Schweizer
,
T.
,
2000
, “
Flow Behaviour of Thin Polymer Films Used for Hot Embossing Lithography
,”
Microelectron. Eng.
,
54
(
3-4
), pp.
229
245
.10.1016/S0167-9317(00)00414-7
14.
Kwak
,
S.
,
Kim
,
T.
,
Park
,
S.
, and
Lee
,
K.
,
2003
, “
Layout and Sizing of Ejector Pins for Injection Mould Design Using the Wavelet Transform
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.
, Part B,
217
(
4
), pp.
463
473
.10.1243/095440503321628143
15.
Gui
,
D. Y.
,
Ernst
,
L. J.
,
Jansen
,
K. M. B.
,
Yang
,
D. G.
,
Goumans
,
L.
,
Bressers
,
H. J. L.
,
Janssen
,
J. H. J.
,
2008
, “
Effects of Molding Pressure on the Warpage and the Viscoelasticities of HVQFN Packages
,”
J. Appl. Polym. Sci.
,
109
(
3
), pp.
2016
2022
.10.1002/app.28317
16.
An
,
C.-C.
, and
Chen
,
R.-H.
,
2007
, “
Experimental Study of Demolding Properties on Stereolithography Tooling
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
129
(
4
), pp.
843
848
.10.1115/1.2716752
17.
Fu
,
G.
,
Tor
,
S. B.
,
Loh
,
N. H.
,
Tay
,
B. Y.
, and
Hardt
,
D. E.
,
2008
, “
The Demolding of Powder Injection Molded Micro-Structures: Analysis, Simulation and Experiment
,”
J. Micromech. Microeng.
,
18
(
7
), p.
075024
.10.1088/0960-1317/18/7/075024
18.
Sha
,
B.
,
Dimov
,
S.
,
Griffiths
,
C.
, and
Packianather
,
M. S.
,
2007
, “
Micro-Injection Moulding: Factors Affecting the Achievable Aspect Ratios
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
33
(
1
), pp.
147
156
.10.1007/s00170-006-0579-2
19.
Griffiths
,
C. A.
,
Dimov
,
S. S.
,
Brousseau
,
E. B.
, and
Packianather
,
M. S.
,
2008
, “
The Finite Element Analysis of Melt Flow Behaviour in Micro-Injection Moulding
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B
,
222
(
9
), pp.
1107
1118
.10.1243/09544054JEM965
20.
Griffiths
,
C. A.
,
Dimov
,
S. S.
, and
Brousseau
,
E. B.
,
2008
, “
Microinjection Moulding: The Influence of Runner Systems on Flow Behaviour and Melt Fill of Multiple Microcavities
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B
,
222
(
9
), pp.
1119
1130
.10.1243/09544054JEM1084
21.
Pontes
,
A. J.
, and
Pouzada
,
A. S.
,
2004
, “
Ejection Force in Tubular Injection Moldings. Part I: Effect of Processing Conditions
,”
Polym. Eng. Sci.
,
44
(
5
), pp.
891
897
.10.1002/pen.20080
22.
Hopkinson
,
N.
, and
Dickens
,
P. M.
,
1999
, “
Study of Ejection Forces in the AIM™ Process
,”
Mater. Des.
,
20
(
2-3
), pp.
99
105
.10.1016/S0261-3069(99)00015-1
23.
Pontes
,
A. J.
,
Pouzada
,
A. S.
,
Pantani
,
R.
, and
Titomanlio
,
G.
,
2005
, “
Ejection Force of Tubular Injection Moldings. Part II: A Prediction Model
,”
Polym. Eng. Sci.
,
45
(
3
), pp.
325
332
.10.1002/pen.20275
24.
Charmeau
,
J.-Y.
,
Chailly
,
M.
,
Gilbert
,
V.
, and
Béreaux
,
Y.
,
2008
, “
Influence of Mould Surface Coatings in Injection Moulding. Application to the Ejection Stage
,”
Int. J. Mater. Form.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
699
702
.10.1007/s12289-008-0311-x
25.
Griffiths
,
C. A.
,
Dimov
,
S. S.
,
Brousseau
,
E. B.
,
Chouquet
,
C.
,
Gavillet
,
J.
, and
Bigot
,
S.
,
2009
, “
Investigation of Surface Treatment Effects in Micro-Injection-Moulding
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
47
(
1–4
), pp.
99
110
.10.1007/s00170-009-2000-4
26.
Griffiths
,
C. A.
,
Dimov
,
S. S.
,
Scholz
,
S.
, and
Tosello
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Cavity Air Flow Behavior During Filling in Microinjection Moulding
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
133
(
1
), p.
011006
.10.1115/1.4003339
27.
Kazmer
,
D.
, and
Barkan
,
P.
,
1997
, “
The Process Capability of Multi-Cavity Pressure Control for the Injection Molding Process
,”
Polym. Eng. Sci.
,
37
(
11
), pp.
1880
1895
.10.1002/pen.11838
28.
Gao
,
F.
,
Patterson
,
W. I.
, and
Kamal
,
M. R.
,
1996
, “
Cavity Pressure Control During the Cooling Stage in Thermoplastic Injection Molding
,”
Polym. Eng. Sci.
,
36
(
19
), pp.
2467
2476
.10.1002/pen.10644
29.
Orzechowski
,
S.
,
Paris
,
A.
, and
Dobin
,
C. J. B.
,
1998
, “
A Process Monitoring and Control System for Injection Molding Using Nozzle-Based Pressure and Temperature Sensors
,”
Proceedings of the 1998 56th ANTEC
, pp.
424
428
.
30.
Kazmer
,
D.
, and
Barkan.
P.
,
1997
, “
Multi-Cavity Pressure Control in the Filling and Packing Stages of the Injection Molding Process
,”
Polym. Eng. Sci.
,
37
(
11
), pp.
1865
1879
.10.1002/pen.11837
31.
Zhao
,
J.
,
Mayes
,
R. H.
,
Chen
,
G. E.
,
Xie
,
H.
, and
Chan
,
P. S.
,
2003
, “
Effects of Process Parameters on the Micro Molding Process
,”
Polym. Eng. Sci.
,
43
(
9
), pp.
1542
1554
.10.1002/pen.10130
32.
Su
,
Y.-C.
,
Shah
,
J.
, and
Lin
,
L.
,
2004
, “
Implementation and Analysis of Polymeric Microstructure Replication by Micro Injection Molding
,”
J. Micromech. Microeng.
,
14
(
3
), pp.
415
422
.10.1088/0960-1317/14/3/015
33.
Kurt
,
M.
,
Kamber
,
O.
,
Kaynak
,
Y.
,
Atakok.
G.
, and
Girit
,
O.
,
2009
, “
Experimental Investigation of Plastic Injection Molding: Assessment of the Effects of Cavity Pressure and Mold Temperature on the Quality of the Final Products
,”
Mater. Des.
,
30
(
8
), pp.
3217
3224
.10.1016/j.matdes.2009.01.004
34.
Tsai
,
K. M.
,
Hsieh
,
C. Y.
, and
Lo
,
W. C.
,
2009
, “
A Study of the Effects of Process Parameters for Injection Molding on Surface Quality of Optical Lenses
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
209
(
7
), pp.
3469
3477
.10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2008.08.006
35.
Huang
,
M. S.
,
2007
, “
Cavity Pressure Based Grey Prediction of the Filling-to-Packing Switchover Point for Injection Molding
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
183
(
2-3
), pp.
419
424
.10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.10.037
36.
Collins
,
C.
,
1999
, “
Monitoring Cavity Pressure Perfects Injection Molding
,”
Assembly Autom.
,
19
(
3
), pp.
197
202
.10.1108/01445159910280056
37.
Park
,
J. H.
,
Yang
,
K. M.
, and
Kang
,
K. S.
,
2005
, “
A Quality Function Deployment Methodology With Signal and Noise Ratio for Improvement of Wassermann's Weights
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
26
, pp.
631
637
.10.1007/s00170-003-2036-9
38.
Montgomery
,
D. C.
,
2004
,
Design and Analysis of Experiments
,
6th ed.
,
Wiley
,
New York
, pp.
1
450
.
You do not currently have access to this content.