Material behavior of AA5754 was investigated under different forming process conditions, including two loading conditions (uniaxial tensile and biaxial bulge), several strain rates (constant strain rates at 0.0013 and 0.013/s, and variable strain rate profiles: increasing and decreasing profiles), and several temperature levels (ambient up to 260 °C). Additional warm hydroforming experiments were conducted using a closed-die set up to understand the forming limits of AA5754. The results from tensile and hydraulic bulge tests as well as closed-die hydroforming experiments suggested that, in general, formability of AA5754 can be significantly improved with slow forming rates (<0.02/s), high forming temperature (>200 °C), and biaxial loading (hydroforming) that can delay strain localization (necking). However, the effect of forming rate did not reveal any significant gain in formability for temperatures below 200 °C. The effect of variable strain rate control was found to be significant only at elevated temperatures (>200 °C), where increasing strain rate resulted in lower formability and decreasing strain rate improved the maximum attainable dome height at temperatures above 200 °C. Finally, the material flow curves obtained from the tensile and bulge tests were shown to provide reasonably accurate predictions for cavity filling ratios (∼ 3–15% error) in finite element analyses.

References

References
1.
Verbrugge
,
M. W.
,
Lee
,
T. M.
,
Krajewski
,
P. E.
,
Sachdev
,
A. K
,
Bjelkengren
,
C.
,
Roth
,
R.
, and
Kirchain
,
R.
, 2009, “
Mass Decompounding and Vehicle Lightweighting
,”
Mat. Sci. Forum
,
618–619
, pp.
411
418
.
2.
Greene
,
D. L.,
and
DiCicco
,
J.
, 2000, “
Engineering-Economic Analyses of Automotive Fuel Economy Potential in the United States
,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, Report No. ORNL/TM-2000/26.
3.
Montalbo
,
T.
,
Lee
,
T. M.
,
Roth
,
R
, and
Kirchain
,
R.
, 2008 “
Modeling Costs and Fuel Economy Benefits of Light weighting Vehicle Closure Panels
,” SAE International Paper No. 2008-01-0370.
4.
Taleff
,
E. M.
,
Henshall
,
G. A.
,
Nieh
,
T. G.
,
Lesuer
,
D. R.
, and
Wadsworth
,
J.
, 1998, “
Warm-Temperature Tensile Ductility in Al-Mg Alloys
,”
Met. Trans. A
,
29
, pp.
1081
1091
.
5.
Taleff
,
E. M.
,
Nevland
,
P. J.
, and
Krajewski
,
P. E.
, 2001, “
Tensile Ductility of Several Commercial Aluminum Alloys at Elevated Temperatures
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. A
,
32
, pp.
1119
1130
.
6.
Li
,
D.
, and
Ghosh
,
A. K.
, 2003, “
Tensile Deformation Behavior of Aluminum Alloys at Warm Forming Temperatures
,”
Mat. Sci. Eng. A
352
, pp.
279
286
.
7.
Li
,
D.
, and
Ghosh
,
A. K.
, 2004, “
Biaxial Warm Forming Behavior of Aluminum Sheet Alloys
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
145
, pp.
281
293
.
8.
Abedrabbo
,
N.
,
Pourboghrat
,
F.
, and
Carsley
,
J. E.
, 2005, “
Warm Forming of Aluminum Alloys Using a Coupled Thermo-Mechancial Anisotropic Material Model
,” NUMISHEET, Aug. 15–19, Detroit.
9.
Abedrabbo
,
N.
,
Pourboghrat
,
F.
, and
Carsley
,
J. E.
, 2006, “
Forming of Aluminum Alloys and Elevated Temperatures—Part 1: Material Characterization
,”
Int. J. Plast.
,
22
, pp.
314
341
.
10.
Abedrabbo
,
N.
,
Pourboghrat
,
F.
, and
Carsley
,
J. E.
, 2006, “
Forming of Aluminum Alloys and Elevated Temperatures—Part 2: Numerical Modeling and Experimental Verification
,”
Int. J. Plast.
,
22
, pp.
342
373
.
11.
Abedrabbo
,
N.
,
Pourboghrat
,
F.
, and
Carsley
,
J. E.
, 2007, “
Forming of AA5182-O and AA5754-O at Elevated Temperatures Using Coupled Thermo-mechanical Finite Element Models
,”
Int. J. Plast.
,
23
, pp.
841
875
.
12.
Sarker
,
J.
,
Kutty
,
T. R. G.
,
Conlon
,
K. T.
,
Wilkinson
,
D. S.
,
Embury
,
J. D.
, and
Lloyd
,
D. J.
, 2001, “
Tensile and Bending Properties of AA5754 Aluminum Alloys
,”
Mat. Sci. Eng. A
,
315
, pp.
52
59
.
13.
Ozturk
,
F.
,
Toros
,
S.
, and
Pekel
,
H.
, 2009, “
Evaluation of Tensile Behaviour of 5754 Aluminium-Magnesium Alloy at Cold and Warm Temperatures
,”
Mat. Sci. Technol.
25
, pp.
919
924
.
14.
Krajewski
,
P. E.
, and
Ryntz
,
E. F.
, 1999, “
Method for Improving the Hemmability of Age-Hardenable Aluminum Sheet
,” U.S. Patent No. 5,948,185, September 7.
15.
Krajewski
,
P. E
and
Carsley
,
J. E.
, 2003, “
Heat treatment effects on bending in AA6111
,”
Light Metals 2003—TMS (2003)
, pp.
25
31
.
16.
Lee
,
T. M.
,
Hartfield-Wunsch
,
S. E.
, and
Xu
,
S.
, 2006, “
Demonstration of the Preform Anneal Process to Form a One-Piece Aluminum Door Inner Panel
,” SAE International Paper No. 2006-01-0987.
17.
Hamilton
,
C. H.
, and
Ghosh
,
A. K.
, 1988, “
Superplastic Sheet Forming
,”
ASM International Metals Handbook
,
9th Ed.
,
Metals Park, OH
, Vol.
14
, pp.
852
873
.
18.
Barnes
,
A. J.
, 1994, “
Superplastic Forming of Aluminum Alloys
,”
Mater. Sci. Forum
, Vol.
170–172
, pp.
701
714
.
19.
Amino
,
H.
,
Nakamura
,
K.
, and
Nakagawa
,
T.
, 1990, “
Counter-Pressure Deep Drawing and its Application in the Forming of Automobile Parts
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
23
, pp.
243
265
.
20.
Nakagawa
,
T.
,
Nakamura
,
K.
, and
Amino
,
H.
, 1997, “
Various Applications of Hydraulic Counter-Pressure Deep Drawing
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
71
, pp.
160
167
.
21.
Siegert
,
K.
,
Haussermann
,
M.
,
Losch
,
B.
, and
Rieger
,
R.
, 2000, “
Recent Developments in Hydroforming Technology
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
98
, pp.
251
258
.
22.
Schroth
,
J. G.
, 2004, “
General Motors’ Quick Plastic Forming Process
,”
Advanced in Superplasticity and Superplastic Forming
,
E.
Taleff
,
P.
Freidman
,
P.
Krajewski
,
R.
Mishra
, and
J.
Schroth
, eds.,
TMS
,
Warrendale, PA
, pp.
8
20
.
23.
Schroth
,
J. G.
,
Brueggeman
,
H. M.
, and
Grewal
,
N. P.
, 2007, “
Quick Plastically Formed Aluminum Doors: Design and Performance
,”
J. Mater Eng. Perform.
,
16
, pp.
339
348
.
24.
Ayres
,
R. A.
, 1979, “
Alloying Aluminum with Magnesium for Ductility at Warm Temperatures (25 to 250C)
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. A
,
10
, pp.
849
854
.
25.
Ayres
,
R. A.
, and
Wenner
,
M. L.
, 1979, “
Strain and Strain-Rate Hardening Effects in Punch Stretching of 5182-O Aluminum at Elevated Temperatures
,”
Met. Trans. A
10
, pp.
41
46
.
26.
Ayres
,
R. A.
,
Lanning
,
H. W.
,
Taylor
,
B.
,
Heimbuch
,
R.
, and
Brazier
,
W. G.
, 1979, “
Warm Forming the GM V-6 Oil Pan in Aluminum
,” Report No. SAE 780180.
27.
Cai
,
W.W.
,
Carsley
,
J.E.
,
Hayden
,
L.G.
,
Hector
, Jr.,
L.G.
, and
Stoughton
,
T.B.
2007. “
Estimation of Metal Hardening Models at Large Strains
,” Proc. Int. Manuf. Sci. and Eng. Conf. MSEC2007-31137. Ref 28: S. Venkatesan, F. Pourboghrat, and J.E. Carsley, 2011 “A Comparison of Sheet Forming Methods for 5754-O Aluminum Alloy Sheet,” The 8th International Conference and Workshop on Numerical Simulation of 3D Sheet Metal Forming Processes (NUMISHEET2011), August 21-26, Seoul, Republic of Korea, pp. 683–689.
28.
Venkatesan
,
S.
,
Pourboghrat
,
F.
,
Abedrabbo
,
N.
, and
Carsley
,
J. E.
, “
Quantitative Comparison of Hydroforming and Stamping of 5754-O Aluminum Alloy Sheet at Room and Elevated Temperatures
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol
. (submitted).
29.
Dablij
,
M.
, and
Zeghloul
,
A.
, 1997, “
Portevin-Le Chatelier Plastic Instabilities: Characteristics of Deformation Bands
,”
Mat. Sci. Eng. A
,
237
, pp.
1
5
.
30.
Kang
,
J.
,
Wilkinson
,
D. S.
,
Jain
,
M.
,
Embury
,
J. D.
,
Beaudoin
,
A. J.
,
Kim
,
S.
,
Mishra
,
R. K.
, and
Sachdev
,
A. K.
, 2006, “
On the Sequence of Inhomogeneous Deformation Processes Occurring During Tensile Deformation of Strip Cast AA5754
,”
Acta Mater.
54
, pp.
209
218
.
31.
Iadicola
,
M. A.
,
Foecke
,
T.
, and
Banovic
,
S. W.
, 2008, “
Experimental Observations of Evolving Yield Loci in Biaxially Strained AA5754-O
,”
Int. J. Plasticity
24
, pp.
2084
2101
.
32.
Hu
,
X.
,
Wilkinson
,
D. S.
,
Jain
,
M.
, and
Mishra
,
R. K.
, 2009, “
The Influence of Particle Shape, Volume Fraction and Distribution on Post-Necking Deformation and Fracture in Uniaxial Tension of AA5754 Sheet Materials
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
,
46
, pp.
2650
2658
.
33.
van den Boogaard
,
A. H.
, and
Huétink
,
J.
, 2006, “
Simulation of Aluminium Sheet Forming at Elevated Temperatures
,”
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng.
,
195
,
6691
6709
.
34.
Kurukuri
,
S.
,
van den Boogaard
,
A. H.
,
Miroux
,
A.
, and
Holmedal
,
B.
, 2009, “
Warm Forming Simulation of Al–Mg Sheet
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
209
, pp.
5636
5645
.
35.
Tong
,
W.
,
Tao
,
H.
,
Zhang
,
N.
,
Hector
, Jr.,
L. G.
, 2005, “
Time-Resolved Strain Mapping Measurements of Individual Portevin-Le Chatelier Deformation Bands
,”
Scr. Mater.
53
, pp.
87
92
.
36.
Mahabunphachai
,
S.
, and
Koç
,
M.
, 2010, “
Investigations on Forming of Aluminum 5052 and 6061 Sheet Alloys at Warm Temperatures
,”
Mater. Des.
,
31
, pp.
2422
2434
.
37.
www.matweb.com
38.
www.azom.com
You do not currently have access to this content.