Two photon polymerization (2PP) is a rapid prototyping technique for the fabrication of micro/nano structures from photosensitive polymers. The polymerization process and its resolution depend on the combination of various chemical and physical process parameters. In this research, statistical techniques are employed to evaluate the sensitivity of the 2PP process on the applied laser power, scanning speed, and concentration of photoinitiator. The experiments were performed using the ethoxylated (6) trimethylolpropane triacrylate (SR499-Sartomer) monomer and acyl phosphine oxide (Lucirin TPO-L-BASF) photoinitiator. A design of experiments approach is utilized to evaluate the effect of these process parameters at various set levels on the polymerized width and height. The proposed model is checked for interaction among the process parameters and multiple comparisons are performed to evaluate the statistically significant differences. Also, a detailed discussion of the model verification based on error analysis is performed and presented. A regression model is also developed for the prediction of polymerization resolution and the developed statistical model is experimentally verified. Finally, the developed model and the understanding acquired through the statistical analysis were used for the prototyping of various micro/nano structures.

1.
Maruo
,
S.
,
Ikuta
,
K.
, and
Korogi
,
H.
, 2003, “
Force-Controllable, Optically Driven Micromachines Fabricated by Single-Step Two-Photon Microstereolithography
,”
J. Microelectromech. Syst.
1057-7157,
12
(
5
), pp.
533
539
.
2.
Uppal
,
N.
, and
Shiakolas
,
P. S.
, 2008, “
Experiments and Characterization of Two Photon Polymerization Using 1 kHz Femtosecond Laser System
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
6883
, p.
688311
.
3.
Lee
,
K.
,
Yang
,
D.
,
Park
,
S. H.
, and
Kim
,
R. H.
, 2006, “
Recent Developments in the Use of Two-Photon Polymerization in Precise 2D and 3D Microfabrication
,”
Polym. Adv. Technol.
1042-7147,
17
, pp.
72
82
.
4.
Serbin
,
J.
,
Chichkov
,
B. N.
, and
Houbertz
,
R.
, 2003, “
Three Dimensional Nanostructuring of Hybrid Materials by Two Photon Polymerization
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
5222
, pp.
171
177
.
5.
Komatsu
,
K.
,
Ishihara
,
J.
,
Sugihara
,
O.
, and
Kaino
,
T.
, 2006, “
Fabrication of Calixarene Derivative Optical Waveguide Using Two-Photon Assisted Polymerization Method
,”
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.
0021-4922,
45
(
1B
), pp.
479
482
.
6.
Schlie
,
S.
,
Ngezahayo
,
A.
,
Ovsianikov
,
A.
,
Fabina
,
T.
,
Kolb
,
H.
,
Haferkamp
,
H.
, and
Chichkov
,
B. N.
, 2007, “
Three-Dimensional Cell Growth on Structures Fabricated From ORMOCER [Registered Trademark] by Two-Photon Polymerization Technique
,”
J. Biomater. Appl.
0885-3282,
22
(
3
), pp.
275
284
.
7.
Ovsianikov
,
A.
,
Doraiswamy
,
A.
,
Narayan
,
R.
, and
Chichkov
,
B. N.
, 2007, “
Two-Photon Polymerization for Fabrication of Biomedical Devices
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
6465
, p.
646500
.
8.
Kuebler
,
S. M.
,
Rumi
,
M.
,
Watanabe
,
T.
,
Braun
,
K.
,
Cumpston
,
B. H.
,
Heikal
,
A.
,
Erskine
,
L. L.
,
Thayumanavan
,
S.
,
Barlow
,
S.
,
Marder
,
S. R.
, and
Perry
,
J. W.
, 1999, “
Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication
,”
International Quantum Electronics Conference Proceedings
, Vol.
52
.
9.
Serbin
,
J.
,
Egbert
,
A.
,
Ostendorf
,
A.
,
Chichkov
,
B. N.
,
Houbertz
,
R.
,
Domann
,
G.
,
Schulz
,
J.
,
Cronauer
,
C.
,
Frohich
,
L.
, and
Popall
,
M.
, 2003, “
Femtosecond Laser-Induced Two-Photon Polymerization of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials for Applications in Photonics
,”
Opt. Lett.
0146-9592,
28
(
5
), pp.
301
303
.
10.
Sun
,
H.
,
Takada
,
K.
,
Kim
,
M.
,
Lee
,
K.
, and
Kawata
,
S.
, 2003, “
Scaling Laws of Voxels in Two-Photon Polymerization Nanofabrication
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
0003-6951,
83
(
6
), pp.
1104
1106
.
11.
Mendonca
,
C. R.
,
Correa
,
D. S.
,
Baldacchini
,
T.
,
Tayalia
,
P.
, and
Mazur
,
E.
, 2008, “
Two-Photon Absorption Spectrum of the Photoinitiator Lucirin TPO-L
,”
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
0947-8396,
90
(
4
), pp.
633
636
.
12.
Xing
,
J. -F.
,
Dong
,
X. -Z.
,
Chen
,
W. -Q.
,
Duan
,
X. -N.
,
Takeyasu
,
N.
,
Tanaka
,
T.
, and
Kawata
,
S.
, 2007, “
Improving Spatial Resolution of Two-Photon Microfabrication by Using Photoinitiator With High Initiating Efficiency
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
0003-6951,
90
, p.
131106
.
13.
Dean
,
A.
, and
Voss
,
D.
, 2000,
Design and Analysis of Experiments
,
Springer
,
New York
.
14.
Weisberg
,
S.
, 2005,
Applied Linear Regression
,
3rd ed.
,
Wiley-Interscience
,
Singapore
.
15.
Odian
,
G.
, 2004,
Principles of Polymerization
,
Wiley-Interscience
,
Singapore
.
16.
DeVoe
,
R. J.
,
Kalweit
,
H.
,
Leatherdale
,
K. A.
, and
Williams
,
T. R.
, 2003, “
Voxel Shape in Two Photon Fabrication
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
4797
, pp.
310
316
.
17.
Kewitsch
,
A. S.
, and
Yariv
,
A.
, 1996, “
Self-Focusing and Self-Trapping of Optical Beams Upon Photopolymerization
,”
Opt. Lett.
0146-9592,
21
(
1
), pp.
24
26
.
You do not currently have access to this content.