Hard turning and grinding are precision processes in many cases for manufacturing various mechanical products. Product performance is highly dependent on the process induced residual stress. However, the basic differences in residual stress profiles generated by hard turning and grinding with and without the presence of a thermal white layer have not been well understood. This study aims to compare basic characteristics of the residual stress profiles using an extensive residual stress measurement for five surface types: hard turned fresh, hard turned with a white layer, ground fresh, ground with a white layer, and as heat treated. The X-ray diffraction data revealed distinct differences in the residual stress profiles for the five surface types. Hard turning with a sharp cutting tool generates a unique “hook” shaped residual stress profile characterized by compressive residual stress at the surface and maximum compressive residual stress in the subsurface, while “gentle” grinding only generates maximum compressive residual stress at the surface. The depth of compressive residual stress in the subsurface by hard turning is much larger than that by grinding. The high hertz pressure induced by the cutting tool in turning is the determining factor for the differences in residual stress. High tensile residual stress associates with the existence of a turned or a ground white layer. The coupled effects of high hertz pressure and rapid temperature change induced by tool wear play an important role in the resultant tensile residual stress. In addition, residual stress by grinding is more scattered than that by turning. Compared with the deterministic influence of machining process on the magnitudes and profiles of residual stress, the effect of heat treatment is minor.

1.
Guo
,
Y. B.
, and
Barkey
,
M. E.
, 2004, “
FE-Simulation of the Effects of Machining-Induced Residual Stress Profile on Rolling Contact of Hard Machined Components
,”
Int. J. Mech. Sci.
0020-7403,
46
(
3
), pp.
371
388
.
2.
Schwach
,
D. W.
, and
Guo
,
Y. B.
, 2006, “
A Fundamental Study on the Impact of Surface Integrity by Hard Turning on Rolling Contact Fatigue
,”
Int. J. Fatigue
0142-1123,
28
, pp.
1838
1844
.
3.
Matsumoto
,
Y.
,
Hashimoto
,
F.
, and
Lahoti
,
G.
, 1999, “
Surface Integrity Generated by Precision Hard Turning
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
48
(
1
), pp.
59
62
.
4.
Hashimoto
,
F.
,
Guo
,
Y. B.
, and
Warren
,
A. W.
, 2006, “
Surface Integrity Difference Between Hard Turned and Ground Surfaces and Its Impact on Fatigue Life
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
55
(
1
), pp.
81
84
.
5.
Warren
,
A. W.
, and
Guo
,
Y. B.
, 2007, “
The Impact of Surface Integrity by Hard Turning vs. Grinding on Rolling Contact Fatigue: Comparison of Fatigue Life and Acoustic Emission Signals
,”
Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct.
8756-758X,
30
(
8
), pp.
698
711
.
6.
Konig
,
W.
,
Klinger
,
M.
, and
Link
,
R.
, 1990, “
Machining Hard Materials With Geometrically Defined Cutting Edges-Field of Applications and Limitations
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
39
, pp.
61
64
.
7.
Tonshoff
,
H. K.
,
Wobker
,
H. G.
, and
Brandt
,
D.
, 1995, “
Hard Turning—Influences on the Workpiece Properties
,”
Trans. NAMRI/SME
1047-3025,
23
, pp.
215
220
.
8.
Xiao
,
G.
,
Stevenson
,
R.
,
Hanna
,
I. M.
, and
Hucker
,
S. A.
, 2002, “
Modeling of Residual Stress in Grinding of Nodular Cast Iron
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
1087-1357,
124
, pp.
833
839
.
9.
Matsumoto
,
Y.
,
Barash
,
M. M.
, and
Liu
,
C. R.
, 1986, “
Effect of Hardness on the Surface Integrity of AISI 4340 Steel
,”
ASME J. Eng. Ind.
0022-0817,
108
, pp.
169
175
.
10.
Hua
,
J.
,
Shivpuri
,
R.
,
Cheng
,
X.
,
Bedekar
,
V.
,
Matsumoto
,
Y.
,
Hashimoto
,
F.
, and
Watkins
,
T. R.
, 2005, “
Effect of Feed Rate, Workpiece Hardness and Cutting Edge on Subsurface Residual Stress in the Hard Turning of Bearing Steel Using Chamfer+Hone Cutting Edge Geometry
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng., A
0921-5093,
394
, pp.
238
248
.
11.
Abrao
,
A. M.
, and
Aspinwall
,
D. K.
, 1996, “
The Surface Integrity of Turned and Ground Hardened Bearing Steel
,”
Wear
0043-1648,
196
, pp.
279
284
.
12.
Smith
,
S.
,
Melkote
,
S. N.
,
Lara-Curzio
,
E.
,
Watkins
,
T. R.
,
Allard
,
L.
, and
Reister
,
L.
, 2007, “
Effect of Surface Integrity of Hard Turned AISI 52100 Steel on Fatigue Performance
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng., A
0921-5093,
459
, pp.
337
346
.
13.
Konig
,
W.
,
Berktold
,
A.
, and
Koch
,
K. F.
, 1993, “
Turning Versus Grinding—A Comparison of Surface Integrity Aspects and Attainable Accuracies
,”
CIRP Ann.
0007-8506,
42
, pp.
39
43
.
14.
Malkin
,
S.
, and
Guo
,
C. S.
, 2006,
Grinding Technology
,
2nd
ed.,
Transatlantic
,
London, UK
.
15.
Dahlman
,
P.
,
Gunnberg
,
F.
, and
Jacobson
,
M.
, 2004, “
The Influence of Rake Angle, Cutting Feed and Cutting Depth on Residual Stresses in Hard Turning
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
0924-0136,
147
, pp.
181
184
.
16.
Noyan
,
I. C.
, and
Cohen
,
J. B.
, 1987,
Residual Stress, Measurement by Diffraction and Interpretation
,
Springer-Verlag
,
New York
.
17.
Fitzpatrick
,
M. E.
,
Fry
,
A. T.
,
Holdway
,
P.
,
Kandil
,
F. A.
,
Shackleton
,
J.
, and
Suominen
,
L.
, 2002,
Determination of Residual Stress by X-Ray Diffraction, National Physical Laboratory
,
Teddington
,
Middlesex, UK
.
18.
Bruker Advanced X-Ray Solutions, 1998, DIFFRACPLUS Stress: Residual Stress Determination, Bruker AXS GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany.
You do not currently have access to this content.