Ultrafast lasers of subpicosecond pulse duration have the potential for laser microwelding of micronscale fusion zone. Due to the extremely short pulse duration, laser-metal interaction involving ultrafast laser pulses should be analyzed using the two-temperature model. In this study, the two-temperature model is analyzed using ABAQUS to study the feasibility of laser microwelding with ultrafast laser. A material model is constructed using material properties and the subsurface boiling model. The model is validated using experimental results from the literature. Laser processing parameters of repetition rate, pulse duration, and focal radius are then investigated, in terms of molten pool generated in the material and requirements on those parameters for laser microwelding using ultrafast lasers are discussed.

1.
Fabbro
,
R.
,
Slimani
,
S.
,
Coste
,
F.
, and
Briand
,
F.
, 2005, “
Study of Keyhole Behaviour for Full Penetration Nd-Yag CW Laser Welding
,”
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.
0022-3727,
38
, pp.
1881
1887
.
2.
Cao
,
X.
,
Jahazi
,
M.
,
Immarigeon
,
J.
, and
Wallace
,
W.
, 2006, “
A Review of Laser Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
0924-0136,
171
, pp.
188
204
.
3.
Richter
,
K.
,
Behr
,
W.
, and
Reisgen
,
U.
, 2007, “
Low Heat Welding of Titanium Materials With a Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser
,”
Materialwiss. Werkstofftech.
0933-5137,
38
, pp.
51
56
.
4.
Triantafyllidis
,
D.
,
Schmidt
,
M.
, and
Li
,
L.
, 2003, “
Comparison of High Power Diode Laser and Nd:YAG Laser Microwelding of k-Type Thermocouples
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
0924-0136,
138
, pp.
102
108
.
5.
Mys
,
I.
, and
Schmidt
,
M.
, 2006, “
Laser Micro Welding of Copper and Aluminum
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
6107
, p.
610703
-1–610703-
6
.
6.
Sierra
,
G.
,
Peyre
,
P.
,
Deschaux-Beaume
,
F.
,
Stuart
,
D.
, and
Fras
,
G.
, 2007, “
Steel to Aluminium Key-Hole Laser Welding
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng., A
0921-5093,
447
(
1–2
), pp.
197
208
.
7.
Wild
,
M.
,
Gillner
,
A.
, and
Poprawe
,
R.
, 2001, “
Locally Selective Bonding of Silicon and Glass With Laser
,”
Sens. Actuators, A
0924-4247,
93
(
1
), pp.
63
69
.
8.
Kalpakjian
,
S.
, and
Schmid
,
S.
, 2001,
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials
,
4th. ed.
,
Pearson Education
,
Upper Saddle River, NJ
.
9.
Brockmann
,
R.
,
Honekamp
,
M.
,
Dickmann
,
K.
,
Meier
,
S.
,
Letsch
,
H.
, and
Matthes
,
K. J.
, 2002, “
Modern Welding Processes for Microsystems Engineering and Electronics Taking Particular Account of the Laser
,”
Weld. Res. Abroad
0043-2318,
48
(
4
), pp.
27
32
.
10.
Abe
,
N.
,
Funada
,
Y.
, and
Ishide
,
M.
, 2003, “
Micro-Welding of Thin Foil With Direct Diode Laser
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
5063
, pp.
287
291
.
11.
Isamu
,
M.
,
Takeshi
,
K.
,
Park
,
S.
,
Hiroaki
,
U.
,
Koji
,
W.
, and
Toshihiko
,
O.
, 2004, “
Applications of Single-Mode Fiber-Lasers to Novel Microwelding
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X,
5662
, pp.
507
514
.
12.
Semak
,
V.
,
Knorovsky
,
G.
, and
MacCallum
,
D.
, 2003, “
On the Possibility of Microwelding With Laser Beams
,”
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.
0022-3727,
36
(
17
), pp.
2170
2174
.
13.
Kaganov
,
M.
,
Lifshitz
,
I.
, and
Tanatarov
,
L.
, 1957, “
Relaxation Between Electrons and the Crystalline Lattice
,”
Sov. Phys. JETP
0038-5646,
4
, pp.
173
178
.
14.
Tzou
,
D.
, 1997,
Macro-to Microscale Heat Transfer
,
Taylor & Francis
,
Washington, DC
.
15.
Anisimov
,
S. I.
,
Kapeliovich
,
B. L.
, and
Perel’man
,
T. L.
, 1974, “
Electron Emission From Metal Surfaces Exposed to Ultrashort Laser Pulses
,”
Sov. Phys. JETP
0038-5646,
39
(
2
), pp.
375
377
.
16.
Preuss
,
S.
,
Demchuk
,
A.
, and
Stuke
,
M.
, 1995, “
Sub-Picosecond UV Laser Ablation of Metals
,”
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
0947-8396,
61
(
1
), pp.
33
37
.
17.
Nolte
,
S.
,
Momma
,
C.
,
Jacobs
,
H.
,
Tunnermann
,
A.
,
Chichkov
,
B.
,
Wellegehausen
,
B.
, and
Welling
,
H.
, 1997, “
Ablation of Metals by Ultrashort Laser Pulses
,”
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B
0740-3224,
14
, pp.
2716
2722
.
18.
Furusawa
,
K.
,
Takahashi
,
K.
,
Kumagai
,
H.
,
Midorikawa
,
K.
, and
Obara
,
M.
, 1999, “
Ablation Characteristics of Au, Ag, and Cu Metals Using a Femtosecond Ti:Sapphire Laser
,”
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
0947-8396,
69
[Suppl.], pp.
S359
S366
.
19.
Dumitru
,
G.
,
Romano
,
V.
,
Weber
,
H.
,
Sentis
,
M.
, and
Marine
,
W.
, 2002, “
Femtosecond Ablation of Ultrahard Materials
,”
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
0947-8396,
74
, pp.
729
739
.
20.
Qiu
,
T.
, and
Tien
,
C.
, 1993, “
Heat-Transfer Mechanisms During Short-Pulse Laser-Heating of Metals
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
0022-1481,
115
, pp.
835
841
.
21.
Smith
,
A.
, and
Norris
,
M.
, 1998, “
Numerical Solution for the Diffusion of High Intensity, Ultrashort Laser Pulses Within Metal Films
,”
Proceedings of 11th International Heat Transfer Conference
,
Kyongju, Korea
, Vol.
5
, pp.
241
246
.
22.
Chen
,
J.
,
Latham
,
W.
, and
Beraun
,
J.
, 2002, “
Axisymmetric Modeling of Femtosecond-Pulse Laser Heating on Metal Films
,”
Numer. Heat Transfer, Part B
1040-7790,
42
, pp.
1
17
.
23.
Stuart
,
B.
,
Feit
,
M.
,
Herman
,
S.
,
Rubenchik
,
A.
,
Shore
,
B.
, and
Perry
,
M.
, 1996, “
Optical Ablation by High-Power Short-Pulse Lasers
,”
J. Opt. Soc. Am. B
0740-3224,
13
, pp.
459
468
.
24.
Hostetler
,
J.
,
Smith
,
A.
,
Czajkowsky
,
D.
, and
Norris
,
P.
, 1999, “
Measurement of the Electron-Phonon Coupling Factor Dependence on Film Thickness and Grain Size in Au, Cr, and Al
,”
Appl. Opt.
0003-6935,
38
, pp.
3614
3620
.
25.
Hohlfeld
,
J.
,
Wellershoff
,
S.
,
Gudde
,
J.
,
Conrad
,
U.
,
Jahnke
,
V.
, and
Matthias
,
E.
, 2000, “
Electron and Lattice Dynamics Following Optical Excitation of Metals
,”
Chem. Phys.
0301-0104,
251
, pp.
237
258
.
26.
Pronko
,
P.
,
Dutta
,
S.
,
Du
,
D.
, and
Singh
,
R.
, 1995, “
Thermophysical Effects in Laser Processing of Materials With Picosecond and Femtosecond Pulses
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
0021-8979,
78
, pp.
6233
6240
.
27.
Chichkov
,
B.
,
Momma
,
C.
,
Nolte
,
S.
,
von Alvensleben
,
F.
, and
Tünnermann
,
A.
, 1996, “
Femtosecond, Picosecond and Nanosecond Laser Ablation of Solids
,”
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
0947-8396,
63
, pp.
109
115
.
28.
Zhu
,
X.
,
Naumov
,
A.
,
Villeneuve
,
D.
, and
Corkum
,
P.
, 1999, “
Influence of Laser Parameters and Material Properties on Micro Drilling With Femtosecond Laser Pulses
,”
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
0947-8396,
69
[Suppl.], pp.
S367
S371
.
29.
Tamaki
,
T.
,
Watanabe
,
W.
, and
Itoh
,
K.
, 2006, “
Laser Micro-Welding of Transparent Materials by a Localized Heat Accumulation Effect Using a Femtosecond Fiber Laser at 1558nm
,”
Opt. Express
1094-4087,
14
, pp.
10460
10468
.
30.
Jou
,
D.
,
Casas-Vázquez
,
J.
, and
Lebon
,
G.
, 2001,
Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics
,
Springer-Verlag
,
Germany
.
31.
Wang
,
X.
,
Riffe
,
D.
,
Lee
,
Y.
, and
Downer
,
M.
, 1994, “
Time-Resolved Electron-Temperature Measurement in a Highly Excited Gold Target Using Femtosecond Thermionic Emission
,”
Phys. Rev. B
0163-1829,
50
, pp.
8016
8019
.
32.
Allen
,
P.
, 1987, “
Theory of Thermal Relaxation of Electrons in Metals
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
0031-9007,
59
, pp.
1460
1463
.
33.
Brorson
,
S.
,
Kazeroonian
,
A.
,
Moodera
,
J.
,
Face
,
D.
,
Cheng
,
T.
,
Ippen
,
E.
,
Dresselhaus
,
M.
, and
Dresselhaus
,
G.
, 1990, “
Femtosecond Room-Temperature Measurement of the Electron-Phonon Coupling Constant λ in Metallic Superconductors
,”
Phys. Rev. Lett.
0031-9007,
64
, pp.
2172
2175
.
34.
Lin
,
Z.
, and
Zhigilei
,
L. V.
, 2006, “
Thermal Excitation of d Band Electrons in Au: Implications for Laser-Induced Phase Transformations
,”
Proc. SPIE
0277-786X, vol.
6261
, pp.
62610U
-1–62610U-
14
.
35.
Kelly
,
R.
, and
Miotello
,
A.
, 1996, “
Comments on Explosive Mechanisms of Laser Sputtering
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
0169-4332,
96–8
, pp.
205
215
.
36.
Dabby
,
F.
, and
Paek
,
U.
, 1972, “
High-Intensity Laser-Induced Vaporization and Explosion of Solid Material
,”
IEEE J. Quantum Electron.
0018-9197,
QE 8
, pp.
106
111
.
37.
Craciun
,
V.
,
Craciun
,
D.
,
Bunescu
,
M.
,
Boulmer-Leborgne
,
C.
, and
Hermann
,
J.
, 1998, “
Subsurface Boiling During Pulsed Laser Ablation of Ge
,”
Phys. Rev. B
0163-1829,
58
, pp.
6787
6790
.
38.
Bulgakova
,
N.
,
Bulgakov
,
A.
, and
Babich
,
L.
, 2004, “
Energy Balance of Pulsed Laser Ablation: Thermal Model Revised
,”
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
0947-8396,
79
, pp.
1323
1326
.
39.
Ashcroft
,
N.
, and
Mermin
,
N.
, 1976,
Solid State Physics
,
Thomson Learning Inc.
,
USA
.
40.
Touloukian
,
Y. S.
, and
DeWitt
,
D. P.
, eds., 1970,
Thermophisical Properties of Matter
,
IFI/PLENUM
,
New York
New York,.
41.
ABAQUS Inc., 2006, ABAQUS Manual, Providence, Rhode Island, Version 6.6 ed.
42.
Chen
,
J.
, and
Beraun
,
J.
, 2003, “
Modelling of Ultrashort Laser Ablation of Gold Films in Vacuum
,”
J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.
1464-4258,
5
, pp.
168
173
.
43.
Mills
,
A. F.
, 1992,
Heat Transfer
,
Irwin Inc.
,
Boston, MA
.
You do not currently have access to this content.