Two overlapping droplets impacting on a solid surface coalesce and recoil so that the edges of the droplets are drawn back, a phenomenon called drawback. A series of experiments were conducted on the merging of two overlapping wax droplets deposited on an aluminum drum to characterize the drawback process between the two droplets. Drum temperature, droplet overlap ratio, and the time interval between impacts of droplets were varied. Wax bumps, formed by coalescence of two droplets on the drum surface, were photographed and their length and width measured. An aspect ratio and dimensionless drawback index, quantifying the extent of drawback, were calculated from these measurements. When drum temperature is increased, or the time interval between impacts of the two droplets is reduced, there is more drawback and the ink bumps become round, since the cooling rate of droplets is slower and droplets have a longer time to change shape due to surface tension. A simple heat transfer model was developed to predict changes in droplet-cooling rate with changes in droplet overlap, substrate temperature, or time interval (deposition frequency). Experiments were also conducted on the formation of lines by depositing 20 droplets. Measurements on the drawback of two droplets were used to predict conditions under which broken lines are obtained.

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