During the initial slow stage of the injection process in high-pressure die casting machines with horizontal cold chamber, a plunger pushes the molten metal which partially fills the injection chamber, causing the formation of a gravity wave. The evolution of the wave surface profile, which depends on the plunger acceleration law, may trap air in the molten metal, causing porosity when the metal solidifies. In this work, a one-dimensional shallow-water model, which is solved numerically using the method of characteristics, and a three-dimensional numerical model, based on a finite element formulation and the volume of fluid (VOF) method for treating the free surface, are used to analyze the flow of molten metal in an injection chamber of circular cross section. The results for the evolution of the free surface obtained from both models for different plunger motion laws and initial filling fractions of the injection chamber were in good agreement for broad ranges of operating conditions. The existence of a critical plunger speed, above which the reflection of the wave of molten metal against the chamber ceiling might appreciably increase air entrapment effects, is investigated. The results for the wave profiles in chambers of circular cross section are compared with those obtained in an equivalent two-dimensional configuration of the injection chamber, for which the shallow-water model is solved analytically. It is shown how the results obtained by applying the one-dimensional model to a two-dimensional chamber configuration can be used to reproduce, with an acceptable degree of accuracy, the salient characteristics of the flow of molten metal in a real injection chamber of circular cross section.
On the Critical Plunger Speed and Three-Dimensional Effects in High-Pressure Die Casting Injection Chambers
Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 2002; Revised December 2002. Associate Editor: S. Schmid.
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Lo´pez, J., Faura, F., Herna´ndez, J., and Go´mez, P. (July 23, 2003). "On the Critical Plunger Speed and Three-Dimensional Effects in High-Pressure Die Casting Injection Chambers ." ASME. J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. August 2003; 125(3): 529–537. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1580525
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