Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) processes allow the automated building of three-dimensional shapes by successively depositing material in layers. Residual stress-induced tolerance losses are principal concerns in using these processes to create functional parts. Thermomechanical models of temperatures and stresses are presented, which are relevant to controlling residual stress effects in SFF processes. Models are applied to a particular SFF process; however, insights and conclusions are applicable to a large number of related processes. The temporal evolution of temperatures and stresses is investigated at two levels of detail. The successive deposition of layers of material is investigated first using one-dimensional simulations, approximating the build-up of residual stress in a multi-layered part. The successive deposition of a column of molten metal droplets (a technique used to create thick layers) is then modeled using two-dimensional axisymmetric simulations. Insights are given into process changes that can minimize residual stress-related effects in manufactured parts, including part constraint and localized preheating near the point of deposition. Results for thermomechanical interactions between droplets deposited in a column provide the foundation for studying interactions between adjacently deposited droplets, which is addressed in Part 2.
Successive Deposition of Metals in Solid Freeform Fabrication Processes, Part 1: Thermomechanical Models of Layers and Droplet Columns
Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, Manuscript received Sept. 1999; revised May 2000. Associate Editor: K. Stelson.
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Chin, R. K., Beuth, J. L., and Amon, C. H. (May 1, 2000). "Successive Deposition of Metals in Solid Freeform Fabrication Processes, Part 1: Thermomechanical Models of Layers and Droplet Columns ." ASME. J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. November 2001; 123(4): 623–631. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1380199
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